Organizations experience change, which can be desirable or undesirable. However, any change in organizational operations must go along with some adjustments. Such change and adjustments incorporate trends, which enable organizational managers to understand the essence of applying ethics in the organizational operations. In criminal justice system, the trends that include privatization, e-corporation, and militarization have necessitated change in the management of police service, to enhance performance of criminal justice. Criminal justice organizations also utilize motivational theories to understand how employees can be inspired to achieve the targeted goals. The current criminal justice organizations have undergone numerous changes, which marks the trends towards attaining positive outcomes.
Privatization, E-corporation, and Militarization
In criminal justice system, privatization incorporates private ownership, as well as the management of criminal justice services. Criminal justice organizations may decide to privatize its operations since government organizations are not always in a position to undertake all their operations exhaustively without incurring some problems. According to Ackerman and Furman (2013), privatization in immigration offices enhances social construction, in addition to increasing revenue in the immigration department. Law enforcement agencies and private agencies may have the same mandate, but they carry out their duties differently, depending on motivation.
E-corporation involves understanding individuals’ behaviors, as well as the conducts of groups in criminal justice organizations. It applies in various departments in criminal justice system, which includes the law enforcement, correction department, as well in judicial system. Each year, the US government spends colossal amount of money to enhance security within the country, as well as to prevent external threats. With digital devices becoming ever-present, e-corporation is increasingly vital in the investigation, prosecution, and storage of records of numerous types of crimes (Goodison, Davis & Jackson, 2016). E-corporation encourages use of technology to instill change that is essential in mitigating crime. Use of advance technology helps in saving on costs of employing additional police officers while communities enjoy faster services from the criminal justice departments.
Police militarization is a significant contemporary subject in the criminal justice system. Societies are perceiving risks through a futuristic lens where people foresee threats and endeavor to control future outcomes (Bolduc, 2016). Due to numerous threats from international terror groups and transnational drug trafficking, the US criminal justice organizations opted for militarization to handle such threats effectively. Militarized police work as a unit by seeking and taking instructions from military personnel. Although many people hold the opinion that the criminal justice organizations are established to enhance the relationship between police and the community, such relationship seems to wane due militarization.
Traditional Organizational Behavior Theories in Criminal Justice
In criminal justice, theories are quite helpful in the explanation of the causes of crime. Social contract theory, as explained by Beccaria, purports that individuals are legally bound to society only when they give assent to the societal arrangements (Burke, 2013). Thus, laws should be applied to citizens equally, as individuals have mandated courts to offer verdicts to the guilty persons. Social control theory asserts that utilizing the process of socialization helps in building self-control, in addition to reducing behaviors that tend to be antisocial (Wada, Longe & Danquah, 2012). This implies that society has a responsibility to fight crime through social control and assisting law enforcement agencies in apprehending criminals.
Diversity in criminal justice organizations is encouraged because it assists in eliminating unethical practices such as bias, racial discrimination, and skewed distribution of resources. Cultural diversity facilitates policy changes, in addition to encouraging new ideas to handle issues of inequality and unlawfulness. When a group of people feels alienated from the system due to disparities, such group is unlikely to trust the organizations that fight for justice.
Criminal Justice Motivational Theories
Criminal justice organizations work the same way as other public or private organizations, hence, the issue of motivation is extremely useful in understanding employee productivity. The use of the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in the criminal justice organizations enables law enforcement personnel to focus on their achievement, rewards, and personal growth. According to Maslow, there exists a hierarchy of needs, which motivates individuals to behave in a particular way (Stohr & Collins, 2014). The needs at the lowest hierarchy are termed as the most essential motivators in all organizations. When police officers feel that their basic needs are catered for, they are likely to work hard to accomplish the next level of needs. A criminal justice professional who follows need theory is always confident and encourages interactions, which assist in meeting other employees’ higher needs.
Knowing how to deal with change is the fundamental in meeting the current needs in criminal justice organizations. The current trends in criminal justice organizations encourage privatization in order to save on costs and increase efficiency while undertaking e-corporation is vital in directing group behaviors. The recent policing strategies in the US have changed from preventing crime to fighting crime owing to increased risks, thus militarization seems to be an appropriate option in mitigating crime. Use of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in criminal justice organizations is vital in encouraging employees to work hard for higher needs. Knowing how adapt to change assists organizational managers to establish appropriate strategies that sustain their organizations.
Ackerman, A. R., & Furman, R. (2013). The criminalization of immigration and the privatization of the immigration detention: implications for justice. Contemporary Justice Review, 16(2), 251-263. doi:10.1080/10282580.2013.798506
Bolduc, N. S. (2016). Global Insecurity: How Risk Theory Gave Rise to Global Police Militarization. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 23(1), 267-292.
Burke, R.H. (2013). An introduction to criminal theory. Milton: Willan Publishing.
Goodison, S.E., Davis, R.C., & Jackson, B. A. (2016). Digital Evidence and the U.S. Criminal Justice System. RAND Corporation.
Stohr, M. & Collins, P. A. (2014). Criminal Justice Management: Theory and practice in Justice-Centered organizations. New York, NY: Routledge.
Wada, F., Longe, O., & Danquah, P. (2012). Action Speaks Louder Than Words – Understanding Cyber Criminal Behavior Using Criminological Theories. Journal Of Internet Banking & Commerce, 17(1), 1-12.