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Sample Research Paper on Political Communication

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Sample Research Paper on Political Communication

The effects of media on political campaign cannot be taken lightly. Advertisement through the media continues to pose different effects on the public, and these effects are depicted during voting. In Cuomo’s advertisement, for example, different effects are created among New York City residents, and the effects are demonstrated during their voting. Since the media has a considerable impact on political campaigns and the overall results after voting is done, this calls for research to investigate how advertisements affect political campaigns (Brady, Henry & Richard 26).

Though advertisements through the media are developing different effects over the years, there has been continued reluctance to attend to the issue of media and its effects. This unaddressed issue of media’s advertisements requires an investigation on their effects on political campaigns. In an effort to look into this issue, the advertisement story on attention on health care for older adult issues will be of great importance. Through this advertisement, different effects are built on the public, concerning two competing governors (Janda et al. 14).

These research questions will be of the essence in the research:

  1. Which are the effects of media advertisement on political campaign?
  2. Is there any significance relationship between advertisements through media and political campaigns?
The objectives of this research would include:
  1. To establish the effects of advertisements through the media on political campaigns
  2. To find out if there exists a relationship between advertisements through the media and political campaigns

This study uses data that was obtained from different media sources. The accuracy of the information is guaranteed through the comparison of the data from different sources. Advertisements through mass media have different impacts on the public and, as a result, produce different effects (Brady et al. 58). This calls for an investigation on these effects, hence justifies the need for the study.

A lot has been written concerning the effects of media on the presentation and outcomes of political campaigns. Critics have the belief that the reporting of news focuses on the personal characteristic of the candidates, but overlooks the fundamental issues of the elections. Observers have a view on the same, and they consider advertisement as an avenue through which positions are distorted, and advertisements make important issues lack their value or importance. The first impressions are very important to voters as these impressions form their opinions concerning the political leaders (Iyengar, Shanto & Richard 21). Through advertisements, the initial adverts concerning different candidates may be very important and may create a great effect during voting. Advertisements can, therefore, have a very negative effect and impact concerning the on the voters. If the initial advert concerning a candidate is not favorable, it may lead to his losing of popularity. On the other hand, other adverts would depict a good image for a candidate, of which the advert could not be true (Janda et al. 33).

 The media are after making money and would be willing to air any adverts from all the candidates. Some of the adverts would not be true concerning the candidates, but the media would care less about it, provided they are making money. This would eventually lead to misinformation on the part of the public, which may end up electing the wrong individuals for various posts. In the 1976 U.S presidential race between Ford and Carter, the initial reactions of the voters towards Carter’s image formed their later voting conduct (Iyengar, Shanto & Richard 38). An Australian elections research also suggests that the use of media by candidates has a strong impact on the voters who make up their minds during the election campaigns. Political appeals influence such people, unlike those people who make their decisions on whom to vote for before the commencement of the campaigns.

Adverts with negative attack have different effects on the memory and the shape the attitudes of voters in different directions towards the candidates. Negative ads have a propensity to be well remembered as compared to positive ads that can be easily forgotten. Negative ads can harm either the attacking candidate or the attacked candidate, depending on the interpretation by the voters. In a study conducted by Garramone, there is enough evidence that political advertising may strongly like one candidate, and robustly dislike the other (Plasser, Fritz, & Gunda 16). There are more negative effects of political advertising compared to the positive defects, and most scholars are not in favor of the practice. This reason, therefore, calls for research on these effects.

My research mainly relied on secondary data. This was done using the advertisement by the governors. The advert was obtained from three different sources to ensure that the information from the three sources was uniform. This also ensured that the original information was used and that there were no chances of using distorted information. A critical assessment of the advert was done, and significant responses and conclusions were made on the same. The responses from the governors were considered while at the same time responses on the advert from other few people were considered as important. These results were essential in determining the effects of the advert on voting that was done by the citizens. The differences in popularity between the two candidates before and after the advert were assessed, and comparisons were made. The comparisons were used to determine the effects of media on political campaigns (Nichols, John & Robert 25).

The media that was examined is a campaign advert that involved two governors, Andrew M. Cuomo, and Mr. Astroino. The advert was simply about competing for power where Cuomo used the advert to convince the public of Mr. Astroino’s negligence on the issue the health for the old. This was not the real intention by Mr. Astroino but the advert created a lot of impact and effects on the public. This was more so on the public who do not bother to read news. The media article was available in different sources e.g. New York Times, Capitaltonight.com, and YouTube videos (Plasser, Fritz, & Gunda 16).

This approach of examining the advert was suitable as it gave first-hand information. The information obtained was from the original advert as it was not tampered with or edited. Critically analyzing the advert also enhanced quality information, rather than collecting the people’s views about the advert.

Media adverts on political campaigns have brought about considerable effects on the election outcomes (Brady, Henry & Richard 88). The major are negative effects. Through Cuomo’s advert, voters had different effects; most of them developed a negative attitude towards Astroino, leading to his defeat in the election. Media was responsible for the defeat of Astroino as it is through its advert that incomplete information was aired, raising the negative attitude on the public views. The original interview had an explanation on Astroino’s comments, but this part was left out, providing incomplete and confusing information. It is, therefore, true to say that media has created negative effects on political campaigns through incomplete information, favoritism, and irresponsibility when performing their duties. The media create an avenue for candidates to attack their competitors but offer little on their capabilities. This renders media as of no help to the voters as it sometimes leads them to making wrong decisions.

There is a positive relationship between media advertisements and political campaigns (Iyengar, Shanto & Richard 42). The advert led to the loss of popularity on Mr. Astroino while Cuomo’s popularity rose. 29% of the voters had a favorable view of Mr. Astroino while 30% of them had an unfavorable view towards him. The advert appeared repeatedly on the television, and this enabled the advert to reach many people. Cuomo gained favor among the voters and maintained a lead up to the voting day, hence being elected governor (Plasser, Fritz, & Gunda 16).

The research was set out to determine the effects of media advertisement on political campaigns, and to examine if there exists any relationship between advertisements through the media and political campaigns. These objectives were realized by obtaining and critically analyzing an advert that led to changes in the views of the candidates by the voters in New York.

From the study, it was discovered that advertisements through the media have negative effects on political campaigns and the overall results of the elections. The adverts have a direct and positive relationship on political campaigns, where positive adverts will lead to positive outcomes on the political campaigns. The more the adverts the higher the impacts on political campaigns and vice versa (Nichols, John & Robert 25).

The study has aroused our knowledge on the effects and impacts of advertisements on political campaigns. The government should make laws banning political campaigns advertisements. Through these adverts, inaccurate information may reach the voters, interrupting their decisions on who to vote for. Voters who make their decisions after the campaigns may at times make poor decisions because of the confusing and inaccurate adverts. Candidates who may lack funds to advertise themselves may face unfair competition from candidates with enough funds to pay for their adverts. If the government will not ban advertisements on political campaigns, then it should ensure that media houses do not air wrong adverts and adverts attacking candidate’s competitors. This will ensure that the campaigns are conducted on fair grounds (Nichols, John & Robert 25).

 Laws should be enacted to ensure that candidates do not attack their competitors through the media but rather demonstrate what they can do. Media debate forums should be used instead of adverts. Through these debates, it is not possible to attack a competitor, as he would respond to the views raised and provide sufficient and important information to counter any issues raised on him. There is a need to discourage advertisements on political campaigns possible. Candidates should acquire their prominence through their deeds and relations with people but not through personal advertisement through the media. The media should give reliable information on sensitive matters such as campaign matters. They should not always be money oriented (Nichols, John & Robert 25). The government should deal with the issue of advertisement on political campaigns and come up with strategies and means to curb the negative effects.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works Cited

Brady, Henry E, and Richard Johnston. Capturing Campaign Effects. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006. Internet resource.

Iyengar, Shanto, and Richard Reeves. Does the Media Govern?: Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage, 1996. Print.

Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey M. Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The Challenge of Democracy: Government in America. Boston [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin, 2008. Print.

Nichols, John, and Robert W. McChesney. Dollarocracy: How the Money-and-Media Election Complex Is Destroying America. , 2013. Print.

Plasser, Fritz, and Gunda Plasser. Global Political Campaigning: A Worldwide Analysis of Campaign Professionals and Their Practices. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2002. Print.

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