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Sample Research Paper on How Fashion Reflects and Reinforces Female Gender Roles

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Sample Research Paper on How Fashion Reflects and Reinforces Female Gender Roles

Introduction

The clothes people wear naturally determine their social behavior such as the people they interact with or those who approach them. This case is true across the entire globe. The role of the type of dressing is, however, extreme especially when people interact with the garments with a lot of respect equivalent to the respect and concern for other humans. Different communities have various levels of legal disciplinary practices aimed at maintaining high moral standards and observing their code of ethics. Each community defines their restrictions (in either written or unwritten forms) according to their culture. These communities seek to compel the people to adapt to the overall existing standards rather than erode the culture with accommodation of foreign culture. This restriction is due to the influence of the appearance of women towards the general behavior of the people of the society (Hiner 9).

Beginning in the early 1950s in especially the countries that massively invested in the Second World War, there has been an increase in the masculine aspects in womens’ fashion clothing and trends across the globe. Strangely, at the same time the women roles are maintained as passive and gentle. After the women participation in the world war by working in the industries at the middle of the 20th Century (considering also the depression two decades earlier), they have continually taken many roles initially assumed to be masculine. Outside the traditional role of a house-wife and mother, they have engaged in for instance, politics and leadership positions as well as professions (such as mechanical engineering and architecture) that were traditionally viewed and left for the men (Graham 4). Fashion magazines have adopted a system of interpreting the needs of the society and manifesting them in changing designs on super models. Through time, the type of dressing depicted in popular fashion magazines. has continually and consistently defined the gender identity despite the radical changes occurring over the years. Today marketers have embraced the notion of sexual appeal and incorporated it into advertisements. The role of women has rapidly shifted from decency and a symbol of reverence to an enticing tool aiming at attracting consumers to any kind of product. While the style spreads across the world and generates debates over the limits of exposure of the naked female body, the companies that use these images continue to make huge sales from the brands with attractive fashionable women. Initially in history, feminine dresses depicted respect and modesty in society and contained much material that covered the entire body to the feet. The trend of brief clothing has much popularity especially in the 20th century and wide media coverage in the 21st century with the advancement in technology through Internet advertising (Arnold, 2). The purpose of this paper is to portray the ways in which fashion reflects and reinforces the role of women in society, how it has shaped the advertising industry around the world and the development of stereotypes on the media based on fashionable images of women. This is because there are a lot of misconceptions and debates about the limits, regulations and restrictions to clothes and level of exposure of especially the female body to the public.

Fashion in historical feminine dresses

Every time there is a historical dress on exhibition or on display in stores, the fashionists associate it with the spectacle of the social elite of the time. The garments always represented a certain class and group of people. People naturally focus on the quality of craftsmanship and put a high price on the precious garments. In most periods in history, the feminine dresses showed reverence and modesty that earned respect and honor to the ladies especially during the time when they did not play a major role in leadership and politics.

The designs from historical civilizations also represent the specific time and place in which they were worn. They, therefore, describe the people’s culture and religious practices. They reveal the organization especially within established systems and kingdoms in history. The interpretation of the garments in relation to the time in which they were popular depends on the historical facts, objects and artworks. Apparently, there is a new challenge in interpreting and understanding the vast variety of cultural dresses of the women of the past. Debates over historical facts interfere with the accuracy of the fashion of the time too (Black et al., 45).

Today, Museum officials are focusing on the female dress exhibitions rather than other objects because the historical dresses attract the attention of viewers more than other artworks. Women are particularly interested in forms of historical fashions that instruments and ancient equipment. They can borrow creative ideas from the designs and incorporate some of the ideas into latest designs (Adam 4).

The role of dressings

The intimacy and concern for various types of dresses ultimately define the outward appearance and depict not only the social identity of an individual but also their gender (Rebbecca 18). Although the designs change, the euphoria and concern over clothes and their latest designs of the times have existed all through time as they define and differentiate the genders of a particular time. According to Rebbecca, dresses are a product of culture depicted in material and express the relationship between an individual’s values and those attached to the clothes. They are, therefore, determinants of the perceptions of the self-image and public perception of people. The kind of dress a person wears reflects the public perception of their personality. The clothes therefore, filter the connection of the inner unknown person to the surrounding social world. Just as the body asks as the physical and tangible part of the invisible character of a man, the clothes give the impressions of the particular person’s interests and wants as viewed by the society (Gasouka 112).

Women are keen on keeping the trends and utilizing ancient traditional costumes including national attires. The men are not as observant on their dressing as compared to the women in all parts of the world (Ilya and Sheehan, 13). The general trends of a region or country are easily reflected in the women’s attire than the clothes worn by men. Consequently, the clothes not only depict and express the individual’s perception but also the culture of the region in which they are raised or strive to publicize (Dasqupta et al., 5).

Women’s clothes are, in diverse regions of the planet used to highlight their appealing bodies regardless of the cultures. They are also used to protect and hide restricted parts of the body to make them secret and private to the outside world. Although the limits of the extent of privatization and covering are under constant debate and negotiations; in cultures with extreme rules and keen observation on moral conduct, the women’s clothes are defined to cover most of their body to reduce the attraction brought by exposure of their bodies in public to strangers (Arvanitidou and Gasouka 123).

According to Arvanitidou and Gasouka, social information that defines and distinguishes a society is imprinted onto the designs of clothes a person wears. Movement is also instrumental in depicting the social information and portrays the person according to the local knowledge and perceptions of the society in which they reside. It is strange how movement incorporates and reflects a person’s beliefs (Adelman 43).

In Fashion, shows (both in international and local events) follow the rituals of the time to depict social roles through dressing. The movement of the models on the platform depicts the appropriateness of the clothes in playing useful roles of the time. The costumes (whether tight-fitting or loosely worn) are subjected to brisk walks depending on their relevance (such as safari wear, dinner party wear or office wear). Garments are, therefore, not fixed elements of culture such as clay products or artworks that are immobile and only useful in their static states (Adam 18). They are able to not only suit an individual’s personality and desires but also change the perception of the public in re-defining the wearer of the clothes.

Models in fashion shows are able to express social identities through their dressing and movement on the isle. According to Gasouka, optical identity is magnified during social events and interactions where garments and their colors are evidently highlighted and visible. Every dress distinguishes the person’s social class and matches the similar classes while separating the unique classes according the general appearance (Rebbecca 12).

Other than the character and social identity, the clothes (especially feminine clothes) express the aspirations, dreams, and fantasies of the wearers. The type of dress is often representative of the body shape and image and consequently, the response of the beholders. In the Muslim culture, for example, the representative clothing for women is directed by the response of the public. The clothes are designed to reduce immorality in society and take control of the ethics and Islamic law. To date, the designs have successfully ensured the security of high moral standards especially in fully controlled Muslim states in Arabia such as Qatar. The clothes are popularly known as buibui (Dasqupta et al., 5).

According to Rebbecca, no one can completely take full control of their appearance through their choices of dresses. Although the fashion industries try to depict this aspect as through in their advertisements, it is evidently not possible. The impossibility, he notes, is attributed to other aspects of dressing such as their behavior, movement and additional make-up. A collection of contributing aspects to the dress help to define the gender and social position of the person.

Restrictions and regulations

Different communities have various levels of legal disciplinary practices aimed at maintaining high moral standards and observing their code of ethics. Each community defines their restrictions (in either written or unwritten forms) according to their culture. These communities seek to compel the people to adapt to the overall existing standards rather than erode the culture with accommodation of foreign culture. This restriction is basically due to the influence of the appearance of women towards the general behavior of the people of the society. The authorities also define the rules to ensure equality and minimal gap between the rich and poor and other social classes such as minor ethnic difference s (Rebbeca 3).

The authorities that are keen on regulating clothing trends by using restrictions are often aware of the influence of the designs of clothes in transforming the social relationships in their local areas. They, therefore, use their power and influence to regulate and limit the extent to which the clothes especially of the women redefine the society. In modern society, the existing laws restrict the use of clothes through defining the costs of the products and marketing expenses.

These restrictions on the prices of material and clothes in turn put a strain on the type of clothes available for the majority of the people. Ultimately, the people naturally develop social classes through the gradual separation process brought by the ability and inability to purchase certain clothes (Arnold, 32).

Moral Standards

In life, every person generally has an opportunity to choose the kind of personality the desire. These decisions are often based on interaction with the outside world as well as the influential people in one’s life. It is also possible to express this personality through dressing. People are also at liberty to change their decisions concerning their dressing code. They decide what type of clothes suit them and which designs allow them to feel comfortable with their bodies. They also show their solidarity and desires by identifying with celebrities or professions using these clothes (Adelman 6).

People use their dressing styles to communicate their values to the outer world. They also express their emotions and psychological conditions. What is most important is that dressing is a controllable way of showing one’s values and emotions. The fact that one can change their clothes frequently means they are able to communicate different messages to the intended audience. For example, they can change their clothes if they are not satisfied with the results of the response from the public (or intended respondent for that matter). One’s clothing style, therefore, combines their intended expression as well as social expectations and rules in the surrounding. Sakamoto writes;

“There have been criticisms that women’s magazines portrayal of stereotypical female images and sex-based division of roles reinforces gender norms. Davies and others who have denounced discrimination against women in the British media have pointed out that the media is encouraging the acquisition of traditional concepts towards gender roles. In particular, articles and advertisements in women’s magazines concerning fashion, beauty, and health place strong pressure on women to attaining outward gender roles.” (Sakamoto 2)

Women want to be assured of their self-presentation and introduction in public as they display their attire. This leads to their reliance on social attitudes, the acceptable and dominant values, socioeconomic status, and their general life status. Their clothing ultimately symbolizes their social identity despite the region and culture. While women are over focused on the public opinion of how they appear in public, men concentrate on what they want to achieve (Adelman 11). For example, men who are keen on their dress code seek to reflect the possession of power and prestige.

 With the current marketing strategies focused on the customer needs rather than the manufacturer’s designs, it is easy for the marketers to study and learn the values surrounding the consumers in different areas. The contemporary has defined and accepted particular rules of subgroups of classes according to the costs of brands of clothing. The manufacturers have developed a system where they can get the opinion of the consumers and integrate the ideas into the new products for the same consumers but on higher scale. This trend is especially due to the digitization of marketing strategies that make it possible for the consumers to interact directly with producers. The Internet has also exposed the variety of cultures and made them available to every consumer across the globe. As a consequence, the trends in fashions are shared and adapted across the world quickly without necessarily the movement of people to spread the ideas (as in ancient days). In ancient days, cultures only mixed with the visiting of strangers during functions such as inter-marriages and trade.

The symbolism of dressing

Every type of clothe shows particular characteristics of the wearer. The style of wearing and mixing is also crucial in determining the personality of an individual (Adelman 7). The wide variety of the manner in which people interpret this information differs depending on various aspects of the society. Such issues include the culture of the region.

Clothing, according to Adelman, is a complete and effective visual language with a distinct and clear vocabulary that necessitates communication. Like music or poetry, she notes, clothes yield clear concepts to an audience to depict the mood and emotions of a wearer. The clothing language has a specific code that is recognized across borders and boundaries of ethnicity, origins and social classes. It uses visual and tactile symbols of cultural diversities in wide variety of methods to bring notions of the main elements (such as color, shape and type of fabric). These elements are universal and limitless to age groups, ethnic communities, nations and age-groups (Dasqupta et al., 5).

With the exception of uniforms (either in jobs or schools), different dress codes depict similarity in opinion, desires, social classes or perspective. According to Rebbecca, it is like communicating through music (which is more effective than direct declarative speech) in creating an impression and a lasting impact on the audience. He asserts nudity is also a form of communicative apparel and should be classified as clothing because it sends messages to audience through the same elements (color, shape, contours). Nudity is directly associated with the shape of the body, movement of the body and like, clothes, creates an impression and attracts a response and judgment from the public (or intended audience) (Graham 16).

Sexual appeal in advertisements

The Media is responsible for most of the Gender stereotyping in the world today (Espinosa 2). In striving to enhance character traits in the modern society and create humorous situation for viewers, the popular television shows and other forms of media go to the extreme extent to attract viewers and end up creating negative notions among the public.

The rapid civilization and modernizing of our society has led to the exposure of numerous forms of advertisements as multinationals compete in the free trade environment and open (and cheap) Internet enhanced communication to market their products. Both big and small businesses strive to accomplish effective marketing by capturing the attention of as many people as possible across national, international and continental boundaries (Park 1). What is surprising is the unconsciousness in which most people are absorbed into the millions of advertisements in our daily lives. Streets, malls and digital platforms are crowded with various creative forms of advertisements. These advertisements affect our perception and decision making processes either intentionally or unconsciously. Companies have taken the stereotyping element to put the appealing effect of their products by using pictures, for instance that catch the attention of onlookers and vulnerable group of people easily (Black et al., 14).

Fashion marketing emphasizes on sexual appeal to entice consumers to buy and try their products even if the products do not have any association with sexual issues. For instance, vehicle spare parts having pictures of mostly nude attractive female models makes more sales than those without the sexual element on the advertisement (Park 3). Due to the current marketing strategies focused on the consumer requirements rather than the manufacturer’s options and creativity, it is easy for the marketers to study and learn the values surrounding the consumers in different areas. The contemporary has defined and accepted particular rules of subgroups of classes according to the costs of brands of clothing. He writes;

“Companies stereotypically depict their products in their advertising influences vulnerable and insecure people’s biases and behavior. This is because people present themselves as the conventional depiction of the images in advertising that companies intentionally created for their marketing strategy. In particular, the strategic characteristics of advertising that affect people’s belief and behavior about companies’ products and their brand identity, is shown most prominently in the fashion industry. Within the history of fashion marketing, it has been an undeniable fact that advertising in fashion depends on sexual appeal. The representation of women’s beauty is for the success of the fashion brands’ marketing. Calvin Klein, one of the most famous and successful fashion companies has shown how sex sells in fashion advertising, and has influenced other fashion companies’ brand marketing historically” (Park 2).

Most fashion magazine companies around the world are struggling to survive due to the competition from Internet advertising. In response, the magazines have employed extreme tactics by breaking the boundaries of morality and commonly acceptable limits to take advantage of the sexually appealing element in their advertisements (Sutton 4).

The advertisements are based on the trending forms of acceptable images of modern beauty. The marketers study the cultural perceptions of women’s beauty and provide the consumers with enticing images. While only a few products meant for the men have male images, the rest of the products contain sexy women images regardless of the nature of the product. The male-oriented advertisements depict men as masculine, tall and powerful. This type of depiction is not as attractive and enticing as the female-oriented advertisements with posters of close-to-nude beautiful women on public place. More companies are embracing this technique of advertising as the trend spreads rapidly across the earth.

According to numerous researches conducted in the city of New York to determine the effect of sexual objectification of advertisements that majored on fashion magazines, companies with more sexual orientation to their brands competed favorably better than the ones without fashionable women on their posters. The Vogue magazine is a leader in utilizing scantily dressed fashionable feminine attires on women with an extremely high percentage of female models than the male models.

Women’s photos have increasingly been exploited by fashion magazines by portraying them as sex symbols. These magazines have increased the use the images of sexually explicit photos and other nude and provocative images of women over the years. Today, the cultural exposure and acknowledgement of women as equal to men in terms of social roles and leadership positions has also led to the liberalism in exposure of the images on magazines and posters on streets (Park 5). While the rise in participation for the women in various areas that were previously dominated by men such as science and technology, technical departments, physics and politics is evident, there is also an equivalent and parallel rise in exposure of images on the media (including television advertisements, models on magazines and posters in streets).

In 2009, the Dove’s beauty campaign hired average women randomly to prove the capability of women to portray natural beauty and appeal through enhancement and make up. This campaign came amidst sharp criticism and debates over MotoCorsa’s (a motorcycle company) decision to use a female model on their brand. The purpose of Dove’s initiative to use common women was a retaliation and protest on the increased use of exaggerated and manipulated images of super models. Through this unique and opposing portraying of average women, Dove did not only attract the support of many women but also increased the sales overwhelmingly that year (Park 11).

Although MotoCorsa’s decision to utilize the trending use of sexual harassment attracted both criticism and credit, it helped boost the performance of the company’s latest products in the following years. Park writes;

“In that advertisement, one of their male employees posed on an old bike and he is wearing a ridiculously half-naked outfit. He was recreating a sexy photo shoot even though a glamorous and half-naked models, like the ones that are typically shown in the advertisements of Motorcycle Companies. Their advertisement shows how we use sex and marketing in a clever and sarcastic way. Sex in advertising is not a recent invention, relating to the first advertisement with a sexual message, was Pearl Tobacco in 1871. Even though MotoCorsa redefined the real message of the sex marketing by expressing the motives of feminism behind the shoot. Since MotoCorsa’s advertisement could be one of the best advertisements ever that provokes people to re-think about sex in advertising, we can consider their advertisement as the big movement of using sex marketing in advertising” (Park 15).

Modern women stereotypes

The end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st Century have seen major changes in the definition of the roles women should play in the modern society. The empowerment of women in the 20th Century especially after the Second World War to earn and spend their money had not only brought liberalism but also competition and re-definition of the family structure (Parkins 2). According to Parkins, today, in the United States of America and most of the developed countries, for example, the proportion of two-parent nuclear families is on the sharp and alarming decrease as an increasing number of women choose to live independent lives. The number of single parents is, on the other hand, on the increase as the family structure of the 20th Century changes rapidly with the successive generations in the years.

In the Mediterranean region, where women have, for a long time, maintained menial and subordinate jobs, the 21st Century has brought with it changes in the region too collectively contributing the majority of professional workers in these countries as well as around the world. The United Nations 2012 report on working women revealed that 70% of all working women do not live in a two-parent family. The changing roles in the working environment and family institution are evident across the globe in both third world and developed countries. Women are also the most spending consumers today due to the increased financial income unlike a century ago when most middle aged women were house-wives. This increased spending is the issue that advertisers have taken into account to determine the messages on brands as they target the most eligible, easy-to-purchase and convince-able consumers (Hancook et al., 3).

Modern fashion has rapidly shifted the stereotypes of women from their childhood. While ancient societies taught young girls to be cleaner than the boys and be caring, the media today depicts feminism to an enticing tool that can help one to achieve anything they want through exposing it appropriately in fashionable attire. Advertisers strive to create attractive messages and leave the interpretation of the meaning to the consumers depending on, for instance, their gender (Abel et al., 22).

Notions and common sayings such as ‘men are from Venus; women from Mars’ or ‘men are dogs; women are cars’ are statements that create stereotypes early in childhood as children develop beliefs and inaccurate notions about their opposite gender as well as themselves. Graham writes;

“…if we think advertising might have a positive influence on changing sex roles, this study “casts doubts on the feasibility of creating dramatic changes in more traditional men’s gender role attitudes through mass media channels because these men appear to reject images that do not fit their framework for appropriate male roles.”9 If men are most comfortable with advertising that reflect the roles they portray in their own lives, men’s leisure magazine advertising is more likely to reinforce the traditional, societally acceptable male gender role” (Graham 3).

Since women and men respond differently to stimuli when, exposed to an advertisement, they have different interpretations of the meaning and relevance of a product during evaluation. While men respond to male imagery and are attracted to sexually appealing images, women are attracted to female imagery only. According to a research conducted by Espinosa on the various ways the two genders respond to and evaluate advertisements, women respond positively to products that are male-oriented (masculine and athletic) while men naturally do not respond positively to brands they deem feminine (bright colored baby toys) unless the brand uses sexy images such as nude photos of super models or celebrities (Hancook et al. 6).

“The idea that beautiful people can augment the persuasive ability of advertising for beauty-oriented products and services leads to the next intended effect of the use of some gendered stereotypes: role-product congruity theory. The role-product congruity theory simply suggests that advertising effectiveness can be increased when appropriate models are used. At first, it was suspected that female models were more effective in promoting feminine products than males, and vice versa” (Sutton 103).

Today we have multiple women’s fashion magazines in every city in the entire world featuring models scantily dressed. Although the men’s fashion magazines have increased too, it is evident that the growth is attributed to the demand of women consumers rather than the men. The magazines, therefore, target women rather than men as they are more fashion conscious and keen on the beauty products and services to improve their looks. In a study conducted by Dworkin in New York City, there was a correlation between fashion consciousness and the definition of genders and stereotypes. However, the study revealed not connection whatsoever between the frequency of purchasing or reading fashion magazines and the gender roles. The results concluded that reading fashion magazines, does not determine the gender norms of the people in an urban society. Sakamoto writes;

“Looking at the correlation among the frequency with which magazines are read, normative consciousness of gender roles, and fashion consciousness shows that in the case of men there was a correlation between the fashion consciousness scale and the frequency with which magazines are read. A correlation was also seen between fashion consciousness and the normative consciousness of gender roles” (Sakamoto 87).

In China, Sutton’s report revealed that although there is an increase in working women, there is a general equitable portrayal than in most other developed countries. He writes;

“Notably, advertising in China shows equitable portrayals to some degree, as women were shown as workers rather than homemakers, contrasting with women in ads in other Asian cultures such as South Korean and Thai ads. Ads in China reflect cultural changes from the communist era, where the communist-led government in China made an effort to expand women’s roles outside the family to become economically productive. Additionally, aspects of the Cultural Revolution minimized visual differences between men and women by requiring that everyone wore generic worker clothes or “Mao suits.” Both these situations may influence portrayals of women in advertising in China today.” (Sutton 93).

The effects of magazine advertisements to female gender roles

Since the mid 20th Century, Graham observes, there has been an increase in masculine aspects in women fashion clothing. Strangely, at the same time, the feminine roles are maintained as passive and gentle with the changing designs. Since the 1950s (after the women participation in the World War by working in the industries) they have assumed many roles initially assumed to be masculine. Outside the traditional role of a house-wife and mother, they have engaged in politics and leadership positions as well as professions that were traditionally viewed and left for the men. All this while, the dressing has continually changed into more masculine oriented types of sexy dressing. Magazines have been in the fore front leading in the exposure and enlightenment of the current trends in the modern society (Graham 4).

Since gender roles are defined and developed by a complex socialization process, dressing accounts for a large part of the social interaction and behavior aspect of humans in creating roles for each gender (Graham 1). The manner in which the media (with special focus on magazines) layout their advertisements and present female models goes a long way in representing the roles of women in the modern society. These photos are aimed at attracting consumers by presenting the modern beauty on products to increase purchases.

The magazines focus on giving women a sense of inspiration as they search inward within themselves to critique their body (especially the facial) appearance. Men, on the other hand, focus traditionally for the outward appearance such as their professional achievement and the type of lifestyle they should attain rather than their personal appearance.

Graham critically examines the distinction and relationship between the practicability of the reality in modern life and social interaction versus the super models in the hyper-ritualized advertisements. She notes that advertisers do not create the models and define the trends for the women. Rather, they utilized the existing phenomenon, resources and preferences of people to come up with the attracting and popular images. She writes;

“advertisers do not create the ritualized expressions they employ; they

 seem to draw upon the same corpus of displays, the same ritual idiom, that is the

 resource of all of us who participate in social situations, and to the same end: the

 rendering of glimpsed action readable.”

 (Graham 3)

The advertisers actions is interpreting the current ritual idioms popular among the women reveals the daily situations where human behavior and preferences make advertisements understandable and relevant in the society. By emphasizing on the aspects of feminine touch, exciting colors, relative size and the depiction of the modern family, advertisers make their products more attractive to the women (who are also the greatest shoppers and spenders). Unlike the women, men focus on the functionality, licensing approval and the relative size of objects in interacting with products.

Conclusion

In this paper, I sought to determine the role of fashion in defining the role of women in the modern society compared to the historical events and cultures in relation to how the society treated women and their clothing styles. In this study, I explored and revealed the role of the media in creating stereotypes among the public on the different roles of women distinctively and unique from the men right from their childhood. The study showed the rapid changes in fashion magazines and television advertisements striving to compete with digital advertising, which has gained a lot of popularity especially in the 21st century and has threatened to completely diminish the public’s confidence in traditional newspaper and television advertising. The fashion magazines have resorted to extreme measures in using half-naked images of women in advertisements of products of any kind ranging from automobiles to foodstuffs and agricultural equipment.

An increasing number of companies (including multinationals, medium-sized and small businesses) have accommodated the use of sexually oriented adverts amidst sharp criticism, debates, credit as well as positive statistics of improved performance on sales based on brands with provocative images. These advertisements are often based on the trending forms of acceptable images of modern beauty. The marketers conduct extensive researches on the cultural perceptions of women’s beauty and provide the potential consumers with enticing images that are irresistible. While only a few products meant for the men have male images, the rest of the products contain sexy feminine images regardless of the nature of the product. The male-oriented advertisements depict men as masculine, tall and powerful. This type of depiction is not as attractive and enticing as the female-oriented advertisements with posters of close-to-nude beautiful women in public place. More companies in developing countries are using this technique of advertising as the trend spreads rapidly across the earth.

Due to the current marketing strategies focused on the consumer requirements rather than the manufacturer’s options and creativity, it is easy for the marketers to study and learn the values surrounding consumers in different areas. The contemporary has defined and accepted particular rules of subgroups of classes according to the costs of brands of clothing. The manufacturers have developed a system where they can get the opinion of the consumers and integrate the ideas into the new products for the same consumers but on higher scale. This trend is especially due to the digitization of marketing strategies that make it possible for the consumers to interact directly with producers. The Internet has also exposed the variety of cultures and made them available to every consumer across the globe.

Work Cited

Abel, S., deBruin, M., & Nowak, A. Women, advertising and representation: Beyond familiar paradigms. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton. 2010.

Arnold, Rebecca. Fashion: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Adelman, Μ. (2008). Reviews: Gender Matters: Malcolm Barnard, ed., Fashion Theory: A Reader. International Sociology, 23, 735 – 739.

Black, Sandy, la H. A. De, Joanne Entwistle, Regina A. Root, Helen Thomas, and Agnes Rocamora. The Handbook of Fashion Studies. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014. Internet resource.

Espinosa, Danya. Gender Roles In The Media And Debunking Society’s Stereotypes: Glee As A Pop-Culture Reflection . Journal of Winona State University2010

Dasgupta, S., Sinha, D., & Chakravarti, S. Media, gender, and popular culture in India: Tracking change and continuity. New Delhi, India/Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 2010

Dworkin, S. L. Body panic: Gender, health, and the selling of fitness. New York: New York Unviersity Press. 2009

Hancock, Joseph, Johnson-Woods, Toni, and Karaminas, Vicki, eds. Fashion in Popular Culture : Literature, Media and Contemporary Studies. Exeter, GBR: Intellect Ltd., 2013. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 13 April 2015.

Hiner, Susan. Accessories to Modernity: Fashion and the Feminine in Nineteenth-Century France. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Juhyun Park. The Selling of Gender Identity in Fashion Advertising. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/8302651/The_Selling_of_Gender_Identity_in_Fashion_Advertising on 2nd May 2015

Kazue Sakamoto. Women’s and Men’s Magazines and Gener Norms as Seen in Questionnaire Results. Journal of Ochanomizu University. 2010.

Parkins, Ilya, and Elizabeth M. Sheehan. Cultures of Femininity in Modern Fashion. Hanover: University of New Hampshire Press, 2012.

Rachel Graham. Gender Role Reinforcement in Popular Magazine Advertising. Journal of school of Information and Library Science, North Carolina. 2012

Stanley, Adam C.. Modernizing Tradition : Gender and Consumerism in Interwar France and Germany. Baton Rouge, LA, USA: Louisiana State University Press (LSU Press), 2008. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 13 April 2015.

Sutton, D. Globalizing ideal beauty: How female copywriters of the J. Walter Thompson Advertising Agency redefined beauty for the twentieth century. New York, NY: MacMillan Palgrave. 2009

Zoi Arvanitidou and Maria Gasouka. Fashion, Gender and Social Identity. Journal of Sciences

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