China is the second largest economy in the globe based on the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) after the United States. However, China is the world’s largest economy based on the Purchasing power parity (PPP) of their currency. Further, China is the world’s fastest growing economy, and thus, it is competing effectively with United States. According to Chen et al. (2013), China’s economy is poised to overtake the United States by 2020. Due to the country’s impressive economic trends, China has become an investment destination for investors from around the globe. Despite being a global market for international businessmen, China has maintained a unique business culture that influences the businesses in the country. As Brice (2012) elaborates, the magnificent Chinese culture is among the factors that have led to the success of business and the Chinese economy. Therefore, foreign business people should appreciate and familiarize themselves with the unique Chinese culture to thrive in the Chinese business market.
Elements of the Chinese Culture
The rich Chinese culture is defined by specific dimensions that influence business in varying ways. Each of the elements, as Handley et al. (2013) found out, plays a crucial and unique role in shaping the business in the area. Therefore, business people ought to pay attention to each of these elements as none can be replaced by the other. The following are some of the basic elements of the Chinese culture.
The aspect of communication in the Chinese culture goes far beyond the spoken language. The Chinese are non-verbal communicators and heavy reliant of the context at hand. For this reason, foreigners intending to conduct business in the region ought to learn the specific and peculiar aspects of communication in the country. As Ip (2009) discusses, the Chinese relies on the facial expression and the tonal variation to infer the feelings of an individual rather than the message communicated. Contrastingly, the Chinese avoids excessive use of facial expressions when talking or listening. They also avoid eye contact and prolonged staring at the speaker as these may be interpreted as signs of disrespect. Foreign business people should understand these common aspects of Chinese communication to avoid being misinterpreted. For instance, maintaining eye contact in some cultures is viewed as a sign of confidence while it may be taken as a show of disrespect in China.
Aside from the nonverbal features of the Chinese communication, foreigners also need to learn the written and Spoken Chinese. The Chinese language is made up of two major dialects, the Cantonese in the areas of southern China and the Mandarin in the Northern region. These dialects are only different in the way words are pronounced but have no difference in the spelling. However the Cantonese and Mandarin speakers may experience a difficult in conversing as the tones vary the meaning of words in China.
The Chinese people adore the value of collectivism as opposed to individualism. According to a study by Wang et al. (2013), the Chinese community recorded the lowest individualism measure among in Asia. The value of collectivism results in cohesion among the groups. Individuals have a strong sense of belonging to a certain social group, including being citizens of their country. People view their individual success as the success of the larger group in which they belong. For instance, the financial success of an individual is the financial success of the community. In China, the “we” attribute overtakes the “I”, creating a culture of a collaborative community (Zhang & Lopez-Pascual, 2012). Children are taught to belong to and think of the success of the group rather than individuals from a young age. Additionally, the faults of an individual depict the failure of the entire group. For this reason, groups are concerned with the individual persons’ morals as it depicts the character of the entire group. According the idea of groupthink in China extends to the collectivism of the entire nation. Thus, the ideology of collectivism influences business in the country, whether conducted by locals or foreigners.
The Chinese religion is another factor cultural factor that plays a role in shaping the business environment in the country. As Li and Moreira explain, there are five major religions practiced and fully acknowledged by the Chinese people (2013). These include the Buddhism, Catholicism, Taoism, Protestant, and Islam. Buddhism is the dominant religion in the country, and thus, has the most influence in the Chinese business. However, there is also the atheist group, who do not belong to any of the five. The atheist does not believe in the existence of gods, a quality that makes them different from every other religion. As Li and Moreira (2013) elaborate, the Communist Party of China, and most people in government are mostly atheists. Additionally, government official are not supposed to have any religious inclination and, therefore, practices atheism. Government executives can be ousted from office on the basis of practicing a particular religion.
Confucianism is a Chinese philosophy that is widely viewed as a religious practice. However, scholars elaborate that Confucianism is an ethical belief that began as an ideology system of educating the people. The philosophy of Confucianism is made up of five distinct principles; mainly the Yi, Ren, Xin, Li, andZhi (McDonald, 2011). The Yi is the fundamental belief in unity and the decency in the society while the Ren is the practice of kindness and compassionate. On the other hand, Xin is the adoration of the utmost trustworthiness while Li defines the people’s view of material possession. Finally, Zhi denotes the wisdom and guides the tactful ways of relating with each other. In essence, Confucianism teaches the necessity of living harmoniously in the society. It complements the collectivist ideology by emphasizing on the good of the entire society rather than an individual’s concern. Confucianism has persistently formed the central belief system for the Chinese community (Ip, 2009, b). It is also believed to have caused a strong influence on people around the world, and particularly in America.
Hierarchical Social Structures
The Chinese community believes an orderly grouping of the people into a different level of influence. This hierarchical arrangement of is a form of natural grouping in which a member belongs to a group by default (Ardichvili et al., 2012). At the topmost level, there is most influential who includes the elderly, the parents, and the grandparents. It also includes the people in authority, employers, and various professions such as the teacher. People regard those in the topmost level of the hierarchy with profound respect and honor. The second category includes people at the same level such as the workmates, schoolmates, peers, and friends. People in the second category treat each other as equals though they still learn from and influence each other. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the public utilities and the corporates who have the legal capacity of a human being. These are classified as the least influential since they are institutions and not human beings (Pan & Zhang, 2004).
Aside from the top to bottom hierarchy described above, the society also recognizes a person’s social class. The social classification is based on the accumulated wealth of an individual, the level of education, and political power. Historically, the Chinese regards the group of the well of individuals as the gentry (Pan & Zhang, 2004). These are the people who have recorded distinct levels of success in the society. The gentry include the educated fellows, the wealth, and the political leaders. Traditionally, members of the elite class would intermarry amongst themselves. The intermarriages ensured that the wealthy continued to acquire more wealth, remained in political powers and achieved highest ranks in education. It also prevented families of the gentry class from downgrading into the lower class, the peasants.
The peasants in China were a social class that included the low earners, mostly the farmers. Although the peasant was a class of poor and vulnerable people, they were highly respected in the traditional Chinese Culture. AsWiedenbrugge (2012) narrates, peasants were the majority in early China, accounting for approximately 90% of the population. The gentry respected the peasants since they were the source of the country’s food basket. As thus, the gentry acknowledged the contribution of the farmers to the growth of the economy. The last social category in the ancient China includes the merchants and the craftsmen. This group was made up businessmen who constructed items for sale. However, they were regarded with little esteem as the public believed they were fraudsters.
Although the traditional social grouping and composition in each category has changed, specific aspects of social classes have survived through history. For instance, the level of influence is still observed to date (Chapman & Xu, 2008). On the other hand, the percentage of the elite class has increased as more peasants managed to educate their children who rose through the social ranks. Additionally, the artisan and merchants have transformed into the modern entrepreneurs who have a huge impact on the economy. Despite the changes in the social ranking, it is paramount for business people to understand the Chinese social structures so as to have an idea of the people’s understanding of the social framework.
The Chinese people believe in establishing a relationship ahead of any business transaction. According to Wilson and Brennan (2010), Chinese will mostly engage in business with people that they know. This principle of networking and establishing relationships is described as the culture of the guanxi. Even though the Chinese values establishing friendship chains, they tend to be conservative and subtle in relationships. As Wilson and Brennan elaborate, majority of the Chinese are introvert, making it harder for a foreigner to understand their true character (2010).
How the Chinese Culture is integrated into Local Businesses
The Chinese cultures have had a strong influence in the way of doing business in China. AsGebauer, Wang, Beckenbauer, and Kremplexplain, the Chinese business people integrate their cultural beliefs and practices in business forums (2007). For instance, the hierarchical arrangement culture dictates the conducts of a meeting, particularly the order of speakers in a meeting (Li et al., 2011). It also determines the order of protocol in addressing a congregation. Due to the influence of the collectivist culture, the Chinese meetings are often inconclusive. The meeting attendees are only representatives of larger teams who need to be consulted ahead of a decision. Most of the Chinese meetings are followed by comprehensive consultation that results in a decision.
One of the Chinese cultures that have greatly been integrated with the local business is the philosophy of Confucianism. According to McDonald (2011), Confucianism is the basic ideology that dictates the relationship between the employers and the employees. It also influences the relationship between business and the customers as well as inter-business interactions. For instance, the quality of trustworthiness makes it easy for the Chinese to transact business since they trust each other. Additionally, the value of kindness encourages the Chinese businesses to engage in corporate social responsibilities. This creates a cohesive relationship between corporates and the society. The ideology of Confucianism also fosters respect and empathy among the Chinese people. These qualities create a good working relationship between the employer and employees and also amongst the colleagues in the workplace.
Similar to Confucianism, the principle of the guanxi has also taken the center stage in Chinese businesses. As Wilson and Brennan (2010) explain, the idea of establishing strong social networks for the purpose of future businesses prevails among the Chinese. Guanxidictates that favors extended must be replicated by similar or better doing. Thus, the Chinese will always extending kindness to their acquaintances and expects them to show appreciation. Failure to comply with the guanxiprinciple results in the loss of trust and may result in the break in the social ties. According to Wilson and Brennan, the principle of guanxi is the most is the most important that foreign businessmen need to learn so as to succeed in China (2011). As McDonald elaborates, messing up with the guanxi standards may lead to permanent loss of customers due to lack of consumers’ confidence (2011). Additionally, establishing and maintaining long-term relationships is important as it pave a way for future business transactions.
The Chinese culture is also integrated with the negotiation style in local business. According to a study by Jiang, the negotiation processes of the Chinese are typically unique (2013). The Chinese presents their demands in a compliant manner, trying to match their offers with the opponent’s expectation. Analysts also argue that Chinese offers myriad overstated capabilities and demands that may seem unrealistic (Al-Khatib, Vollmers& Liu, 2007). However, they still have ways of convincing their clients that they are better than the opponents. Often, Chinese business negotiations are sealed with a celebration, which may include a luncheon or a business dinner.
Comparison between the Chinese and the United States culture
The differences between the United States and the Chinese business culture are as elaborate as the difference between the West and the Eastern way of life. Firstly, the Chinese believe in a collective society while the Unite States’ people are individualistic (Wang et al., 2013). As collectivists, the Chinese are concerned by the success of the entire society rather than that of an individual. For this reason, Chinese business people appreciate the success of the fellow Chinese both in the local and foreign markets. Thus, Chines corporates can work together with an aim of uplifting each other. On the other hand, the Americans are individualistic in nature, with each or corporate working towards attaining self-fulfillment. People who believe in individualism makes an independent decision that are not constrained by factors such as family, friend circle or any other social grouping. When engaging in business, individualists consider whether the deal is beneficial to them without considering its impact on the society or the nation.
Another major difference between the United States and the Chinese culture is the relationship between the managers and the junior staffs. According to Chen (2014) the Chinese boss-workers relationship is highly influenced by the hierarchy of social ranking. Managers and employers are placed at the same level with an individual’s parent. For this reason, a boss is a benevolent leader who supervises everything that needs to be done, correcting the juniors until they become perfect. The Chinese managers play the role of a parent in guiding the junior employees. They expect a high level of discipline and keenness from all the workers. On the other hand, the United States bosses are resourceful elements that set the vision and pronounce the strategies of attaining the vision (Yi, et al., 2015). Although they encourage continuous communication between the juniors and the seniors, they are mostly the one to give directions. However, they also consider the inputs of the junior staffs in decision making.
Similarly, the employee’s perception and attitude towards their jobs in China and the United States is significantly different (Irene & Liu, 2013). While the Chinese employees respect their employers and are personally concerned by the success of the business, the United States’ employees are only concerned with executing their personal duties. Unless for the high ranked officials, junior United States worker cares little about the success of the business as whole as they only concentrate on their specific segment or line of duties (Sanders, 2014). On the contrary, the Chinese employees are enthusiastic about their work, putting the concerns of the business ahead of their needs (Jin, Ford & Chen, 2013). To them, working for an individual is like a calling and the worker must work diligently to the best of their ability. Due to the virtue of collectivism, the responsibility of the chines workers goes beyond executing their duties as they also aim at ensuring that the entire business performs optimally.
The Chinese and the United States’ cultures also vary in the people’s perception of moral and social values. According to Hwang et al., the Confucianism sets the moral standards of the community (2005). For example, Confucianism philosophy advocates for humility and respect while interacting with others. Chinese are expected to be humble even when discussing their success. They should not appear to brag about their achievements and would rather not discuss them at all. On the contrary, the United States people have no problem with an individual boasting about their success. They argue that success is as a result of hard work, and hence, one should praising success motivates others to work hard. Further, humility in the United States setting may be interpreted as a sign of weakness or lack of confidence.
The Chinese and the United States’ people also differ in their outspokenness and the willingness to address the truth. The Chinese are often quiet and less argumentative (Kommonen, 2011). For this reason, the Chinese refrain from offering a dissenting opinion even when an individual believe that the speaker is giving incorrect facts. They are bound by the hierarchical protocols and honor of each other. Thus, they avoid open criticism and direct confrontation. Contrastingly, the United States people are outspoken, and readily speaks their mind out. The United States culture encourages people to criticize and confronts publicly.
Implications for United States’ Business that wish to Conduct Business in China
The United States’ entrepreneurs who wish to perform business in China should acquaint themselves with the elements of the Chinese cultures way before joining the country for business. As discussed above, it is apparent that the Chinese culture influences the country’s business. For instance,culture affect s the Chinese negotiation style and the way of conducting business meeting. It also affects the Chinese communication style, particularly the nonverbal message interpretation. For this reason, the US businessmen should familiarize them with the specific Chinese elements way before making the initial encounter with a prospective Chinese client.
Aside from learning the Chinese culture, United States’ business people must be able to distinguish specific features between the United States and the Chinese cultures. Learning the difference between the two cultures enables the United States-based foreigners to adjust to the Chinese environment. It also enables them to intertwine both cultures so as not to adopt the Chinese culture at the expense of their own culture. US nationals who wish to conduct businesses in China need to establish a balance between the two cultures so as to comply with the Chinese expectations while still retaining their American
Ardichvili, A., Jondle, D., Kowske, B., Cornachione, E., & al, e. (2012).Ethical cultures in large business organizations in Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Journal of Business Ethics, 105(4), 415-428.
In this study, Ardichvili et al. interviews the managers and employees of various international firms in these countries. They examined how the respondents perceived the ethical cultures in their respective countries. Although the study included five different countries, it reveals the difference between the US and China’s ethical business culture. According to Ardichvili et al., there is a significant difference in the ethical cultures of the Chinese and US market.
Al-Khatib, J., Vollmers, S. M., & Liu, Y. (2007). Business-to-business negotiating in China: The role of morality. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 22(2), 84.
This article presents a comprehensive study of the impacts of Chinese businessmen’s ethical ideologies on their day to day business activities. The researchers studied the perceptions of 300 Chinese executives on the appropriate negotiation tactics. They used regression analysis techniques to identify the relation between various aspects of the Chinese cultures. They found that idealism influenced the manager’s perception of the business terms and the characters of other business parties.
Brice, W. D. (2012). The effects of ethnic culture on managerial attitudes and practices: A survey in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China. International Journal of Management, 29(1), 267-278.
In this article, Brice examines the materialism, doubt avoidance and individualism dimensions of the Chinese culture. By surveying three different regions, where the dominant society is of Chinese descent, Brice differentiates the impacts of the ethnic factors from the environment and national factors. Brice article is among the relevant sections in the study of various elements of the Chinese culture. It evaluates the materialism and individualism, among other key dimensions in the Chinese culture.
Chow, I. H. & Liu, S. S. (2007). Business strategy, organizational culture, and performance outcomes in china’s technology industry. HR.Human Resource Planning, 30(2), 47-55.
This article presents an extensive study of the organizational cultures in the Chinese business market. According to Chow and Liu, there are three primary organizational cultures; mainly, the bureaucratic, innovative, and supportive cultures. In this article, Chow and Liu evaluate how these cultures influence the human resources practice in China. The article is relevant as it examines the dominant corporate cultures in China.
Chen, X. P., Eberly, M. B., Chiang, T. J., Farh, J. L., & Cheng, B. S. (2014).Affective Trust in Chinese Leaders Linking Paternalistic Leadership to Employee Performance. Journal of Management, 40(3), 796-819.
In this article, Chen et al. explores how the Chinese culture impacts business leadership in the country. Notably, this article addresses how the Chinese Confucianism practice influences the relationship between business leaders and employees. Similar to other scholars, shows how the people of China integrate cultural principles into businesses.
Chapman, J. C., & Xu, W. (2008). The road to China: Ten key lessons for doing business in China. The Licensing Journal, 28, 8-12.
In this article, Chapman and Xu evaluate the lessons that US people wishing to conduct business in China need to learn from the Chinese community. They conducted a research on the lessons that the US companies in China have learned in the past 30 years. These include ways of coping with the Chinese culture, political and legal system. This study elaborates how China’s business environment influence the Americans way of doing business.
Gebauer, H., Wang, C., Beckenbauer, B., &Krempl, R. (2007).Business-to-business marketing as a key factor in increasing service revenue in China. The Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 22(2), 126.
In this article, Gebauer et al. examine how the Chinese culture influences the Business-to-Business marketing strategies in China. Marketing is a central idea in the study of any business environment (Gabauer, 2007). Therefore, the influence of China’s culture on marketing strategies plays a key role in shaping the business of China.
Hwang, D. B. K., & A, B. S. (2005). An analysis of recent accounting and auditing failures in the United States on US accounting and auditing in China. Managerial Auditing Journal, 20(3), 227-234.
In this article, Hwang analyzes the impacts of accounting and auditing failures in China and the United States. Hwang et al.’s study was motivated by the heated debate on the errors in accounting and auditing systems of the American firms that had been was publicized by the press prior to their study. Hwang and others sought to investigate the possible causes of errors in the accounting system. This article demonstrates the impacts of the Chinese culture on businesses.
Handley, R. C., Raw, N. J., Louw, M., &Louw, L. (2013). The influence of culture and biographical variables on the brand image of Google and Baidu: An exploratory study in Guangzhou, China. International Journal of China Marketing, 4(1), 32-50.
In this article, Handley et al. examine the impacts of China’s culture on brand names of the international product. They analyzed various cultural dimensions such as Confucian work dynamic, moral discipline and human-heartedness of the Chinese community. This article is relevant to the study of Chinese culture and dimensions as it elaborates on three major elements that impact the business industry. In denotes the roles of Confucianism, social norms, and humanistic behaviors in the business context
Ip, P. K. (2008). The challenge of developing a business ethics in China. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 211-224.
In this article, Ip addresses the issues surrounding business ethics development in China. This article examines various cultural and ideological foundations that impact the corporate social responsibilities of firms in China. In this article, Ip examines specific Chinese cultures such as Buddhist, Confucianism, Socialist and Daoist principles. Each of these aspects influences the development of CSR ethics in China. Therefore, Ip does not only examine China’s cultural aspects but also relates their impacts in business.
Ip, P. K. (2009). Is Confucianism good for business ethics in China? Journal of Business Ethics, 88(3), 463-476.
In this article, Ip explores how Chinese Confucian tradition can be integrated into purposeful business practices. By applying the Chinese traditional aspects such as Junzi, Ren, yi, li, and guanxi, in the business context, Ip explains how the country’s culture matches the modern social responsibilities of businesses.
Jin, J. F., Ford, M. T., & Chen, C. C. (2013). Asymmetric differences in work-family spillover in North America and China: Results from two heterogeneous samples. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(1), 1-14.
In this article, Jin et al. compare the work and family relationship among the Chinese and the American workers. Their study sought to identify the difference between Work-family spillovers between the two groups. They, therefore, sampled two samples, one from the American culture, and the second one from the Chinese workers. They found that the work-to-family spillover was stronger in the North America than in China. Contrastingly, the family-to-work spillovers were more stringent in China than in America. This asymmetric difference shows that there is a difference between the Chinese and the American business culture.
Jiang, Y. (2013). Business negotiation culture in China: A game theoretic approach. International Business Research, 6(3), 109-116.
In this article, Jiang examines the impact of China’s culture in the Chinese way of conducting business. He utilizes the game theory models to elaborate the impact of China’s culture on the businesses in the country. Particularly, Jiang examines the impact of the country’s culture on the Chinese businessmen’s negotiation characters. Based on previous studies, Jiang proves that culture influences individual’s negotiation behavior. This article is a relevant resource as it reveals the influence of the Chinese culture in businesses in China.
Kommonen, K. (2011). Narratives on Chinese color culture in business contexts. Cross Cultural Management, 18(3), 366-383.
In this article, Kommonen conducts an empirical analysis of Chinese narrative accounts that expounds on the people’s understanding of color. The analysis involved interviewing prominent managers to find out their understanding of Chinese color narratives. Kommonene’s research established a set of social understandings of different colors, known as the “Color Culture.”
Li, K., Griffin, D., Yue, H., & Zhao, L. (2011). National culture and capital structure decisions: Evidence from foreign joint ventures in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(4), 477-503.
According to Li et al. (2011), China is a global market, with investors from different parts of the world. Therefore, China’s business market is an interaction ground of different cultures. Thus, Li and others examine the impacts of various countries’ cultures in China. They study the influence of the country of origin’s culture in decision-making of international companies in China. This article presents an illustration of the blend between China’s local culture and the cultures of the foreign investors in the country.
Li, T., & Moreira, G. O. (2009). The influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese business: The case of Aveiro, Portugal. Journal of Intercultural Communication, (19).
In this article, Li and Moreira explore how Confucianism and Buddhism cultures are integrated into the Chinese businesses. According to them, the two cultures influence major decisions in the Chinese market. The article is relevant as it shows how specific aspects of Chinese culture impacts business in the country.
McDonald, P. (2011). Maoism versus Confucianism: Ideological influences on Chinese business leaders. The Journal of Management Development, 30(7), 632-646.
This article explores Chinese Maoism and Confucianism ideologies in the context of modern business. According to McDonald, the two ideologies are major cultural values in the Chinese community (2011). They regulate every aspect of life in China, including business and political leadership. In this article, McDonald investigates how the two ideologies influence leadership skills among the 200 Chinese managers. He found that Maoism and Confucianism impact the Chinese business leadership strategies.
Pan, F., & Zhang, Z. (2004).Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China. Singapore Management Review, 26(1), 81-90.
In this article, Pan and Zhang put the cultural difference between the US and China into perspective. Applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, this article analyzes the differences and similarities between the Chinese and the American culture. Additionally, the authors examine the impacts of the cultural differences in the management practices of the Chinese and American entrepreneur. This article presents a comprehensive comparison between the two business cultures.
Sanders, E. (2014). An American expatriate in china: Evidence of organizational culture crossvergence. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 15(3), 58-66.
According to Sanders (2014), the United States, and China’s cultural difference poses a challenge to the Americans doing business in China. Often, American encounters challenge in adapting to the Chinese way of life. Sander examines these claims by interviewing an American-born expatriate in China who narrates his ordeal in the Chinese market. In this article,
Wilson, J., & Brennan, R. (2010). Doing business in China: Is the importance of guanxi diminishing? European Business Review, 22(6), 652-665.
Wilson and Brennan have studied on of the prominent tradition among the Chinese community, the guanxiprinciple. According to them, guanxi is a dominant belief that regulates the relationship between the Chinese people. In this study, Wilson and Brennan examine the importance of the guanxiin the Chinese business setting. They conducted a qualitative study to relate the historical practices of the guanxi with the modern aspects of business in China.
Wang, L., Hinrichs, K. T., Prieto, L., & Howell, J. P. (2013). Five dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior: Comparing antecedents and levels of engagement in China and the US. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 30(1), 115-147.
Wang et al. compare the US and China’s culture from the perspective of the employee’s level of engagement in the workplace. They also examined the difference between the Chinese and US employees’ perception of the distributive justice.
Wiedenbrugge, M. (2012). Doing business in China: An opportunity not to be missed? Credit Control, 33(1), 29-35.
In this article, Wiedenbrugge analyzes the Chinese business culture. He examines the legal, political, and environmental aspects of doing business in China. His article reported on an extensive analytical research carried out throughout the Asian market in 2011. His article reveals some of the appealing business opportunities as well as the corresponding challenges in the Chinese market.
Yi, X., Ribbens, B., Fu, L., & Cheng, W. (2015).Variation in career and workplace attitudes by generation, gender, and culture differences in career perceptions in the United States and China. Employee Relations, 37(1), 66.
In this article, Yi et al. investigate the differences in career and workplace perceptions of the US and China nationals. In their recent study, Yi and others sought to identify the variations in between the US and Chinese workers by age, gender, and cultural backgrounds (2015). They sampled a set of employees and managers from both China and the US and subjected them to an online questionnaire. As elaborated in their article, Yi and others found the Chinese and US nationals have different work values and attitudes.
Zhang, Y., & Lopez-Pascual, J. (2012). Dynamic versus static culture in international business: A study of Spanish banking in China. Cross Cultural Management, 19(4), 588-611.
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of two major aspects of culture in a multicultural business environment. Zhang, Y., & Lopez-Pascualconducted a qualitative analysis of data collected in the Chinese market, particularly in the banking industry. This article is a relevant resource for the study of the elements and dimensions of the Chinese culture.