Sample Business Studies Paper on Foundations of Quality Management

Quality management refers to the processes an organization adopts to ensure that its
products or services are consistent in meeting clients' expectations. Quality management entails
four main components. They include planning, assurance, control, and enhancement (University
of Cambridge, 2016). Besides concentrating on the products and services, the new concept of
quality management explores different ways of accomplishing it. Clients' behaviors, preferences,
and willingness to pay for products and services determine quality (University of Cambridge,
2016). In this context, quality can be defined as the suitability to accomplish the intended
purpose. Therefore, quality management applies the concepts of quality assurance and control of
processes and product improvement to attain greater quality consistency.
Compare and Contrast Two Quality Philosophies.

Kenneth H. Rose defines quality as a significant component of the success of a project.
The guide on Project Quality Management offers a systematic guide for the project management
process and the tools that facilitate the process to be applied in different contexts. Rose proposes
the wheel of quality that expounds on three aspects of quality, what a company does, how it does
its activities, and why it is doing a particular action (Rose, 2005). These concepts build on the
process of quality assurance, which includes the application of planned and systemic quality
activities to ensure the project utilizes all activities required to achieve its obligations. Quality
assurance encompasses a combined set of actions upon which the project team is supposed to
perform to accomplish the process's objective (Cordero, 2014). The author also advocates for
quality improvement to create beneficial change by ensuring customer satisfaction and
organizational competitiveness. It involves following all the procedures of planning a change

that will produce positive outcomes, performing the enhancement on a small scale, and acting to
In contrast, David A. Garvin defines a product's quality as an outcome of philosophy,
marketing, economics, and operations management. As such, product quality becomes an
important competitive issue. Garvin proposes five models for determining the quality of products
and services. They encompass transcendence, user-based approach, product-based approach,
manufacturing-based, and value-based approach (Levin, 2014). The author proposes eight
dimensions framework covering numerous concepts for enhancing product quality. They
comprise measurable product attributes while others reflect personal preferences. Others are
objective and timeless while others shift with fluctuating fashion; however, others are inherent
characteristics of goods while some are ascribed traits. The eight dimensions include reliability,
aesthetics performance, feature, perceived quality, conformance, serviceability, and durability
(Garvin, 1984). The diversity of these concepts define the distinction among the traditional
approaches to quality. The product-based course emphasizes the performance, features, and
durability of a product. The user-based model concentrates on the aesthetics and perceived
quality. Lastly, the manufacturing-based approach emphasizes conformity and reliability
The convergence of these philosophies lies in enhancing the manufacturing process,
products, and user-based approaches. Both Rose and Garvin hold the perception that quality is
innate fineness. This aspect can only be determined through experience. Hence, enhancing the
outcomes of a product on the end-user, the manufacturing process, and the product's value can go
a long way to influence brand consumers' perceptions. Both philosophies emphasize the need to
attain and enhance customer experience and satisfaction by producing deliverables that meet all

stakeholders' standard requirements (Rose, 2005). As a result, organizations must invest in
developing the process and its people by consulting with stakeholders to build transparent
interactions with clients (Garvin, 1984). Another convergence of both philosophies is the stress
for the need for continuous improvement. Implementing this concept implies regularly
monitoring and recording any emerging issues to influence future project management decisions.

Application of Philosophies in Practice

Mr. Rose's proposition on project quality management is critical in inspiring
manufacturing firms' quality management. The excerpts provide crucial guidelines to enhance
quality management across the project management scope. For instance, the Wheel of Quality
depicts the integration of all the concepts of contemporary quality (Rose, 2005). He also provides
a vast volume of information that is essential to understand and enhance quality management.
Further, he gives a guideline for integrating the various steps of quality enhancement in the
project implementation (Rose, 2005). Experienced project managers understand the significance
of following a rigorous process of different projects. Mr. Rose provides project managers with a
different approach to consider besides explaining the techniques and tools for expanding the
project toolkit to drive a project to another level.
David A. Garvin proposes a new approach for thinking strategic quality administration.
This approach involves evaluating consumers’ perceptions of different things and creating a
conceptual bridge to consumers' standpoints. Garvin helps to express the descriptions and scopes
of quality (Garvin, 1984). For instance, he defines the eight quality dimensions and five
descriptions of quality, which go a long way to influence business managers thinking about
strategic quality management. A few these dimensions are commonly augmenting, while some
are not. For instance, a product or service could rank favorably in one dimension and lower in

another approach. However, this interplay of dimensions facilitates strategic quality management
and better decision making about the dimensions on which products and services will compete.

The Most Suitable Philosophy

Between the two philosophies proposed by David Garvin and Kenneth rose on quality
management, the latter seems a more suitable approach to enhance organizational activities and
performance. Kenneth Rose's philosophy explores beyond the main elements of quality such as
inspection, statistics, and reworking a project to incorporate more recent concepts of quality such
as, customer focus, diversity, and constant improvement (Fields et al., 2014). This approach is
pegged on training, which forms the foundation of quality. Besides, it emphasizes the role of
leadership as the unifying factor of quality. Nonetheless, it recognizes that every part of the
organization is responsible for improving a brand's quality. In this context, the primary
responsibility of managers is the project and product quality. Rose's philosophy is also suitable
because it defines project teams' responsibility to enhance the quality aspects of their parts in the
project. Lastly, it stipulates individual team members' commitment to improving the project's
quality in all their undertakings.

Significance of Rose’s Philosophy on Personal life

Mr. Kenneth Rose provides an in-depth analysis of quality, especially in the context of
project management. Besides, he moves beyond the typical description and advice for
manufactured goods to provide a framework for project managers to enhance the organization's
productivity in managing quality for the advantage of the project's outcomes in any domain
(Rose, 2005). This philosophy offers a user-friendly guide comprising tools and techniques to
augment the process with more hands-on procedures with proven efficacy. These insights are
incredibly helpful because they emphasize the need for the continuous advancement of the three

aspects of quality: what a company does, how it does its activities, and why it is doing a
particular action (Fields et al., 2014). These organizational approaches can be transferred to
impact project participants' personal lives and traits to enhance personal growth.
Recommendations for Integrating Project Quality Management
The primary function of project managers is overseeing the implementation of the quality
management plan. In this context, the emphasis is delivering products and services that meet
customers and stakeholders' expectations. However, implementing quality management requires
managers to understand the many concepts of quality management and their interaction. One
takeaway for organizations assuming Rose's philosophy is that customer satisfaction is the basis
of quality (Rose, 2005). The primary focus for organizations enhancements is to provide services
that meet and exceed consumers’ expectations. Failure to address all aspects of customers and
stakeholders' expectations is predictive of unsatisfactory outcomes. Another takeaway is the
adoption of advanced project management programs (Cordero, 2014). In this context, project
managers need to familiarize themselves with advanced and more recent developments that
enhance project quality management. For instance, using the resource can
help managers view and manage all aspects of a project. This development's various features
address the deliverables' quality before they go too far from the intended target.


Quality management is a vital aspect of the implementation of a project and the outcomes
of the course. Philosophers Kenneth Rose and David A Garvin propose two valuable quality,
enhancement models. Kenneth Rose provides useful insights into project quality management,
emphasizing quality control, quality assurance, quality in management tools, and guidance in
practice. On the other side, David Garner proposes five approaches to defining quality that


provides empirical relationships between quality and some vital variables, including
transcendence, user-based, manufacture-based, value-based, and product-based approaches.
Therefore, managers must familiarize themselves with the different concepts that define quality
and their interactions for sustainable organizational development.



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Ross Publishing.
Fields, P., Hague, D. R., Koby, G. S., Lommel, A., & Melby, A. (2014). What is quality? A
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Garvin, D. A. (1984). What does 'Product quality' really
Levin, G. (2014). Project quality management: Why, what and how, second edition. Project
Management Journal, 45(5), e3-e3.
Rose, K. (2005). Project quality management: Why, what and how. J. Ross Publishing.
University of Cambridge. (2016). Quality framework. Institute for