Sample Research Paper on HPV: Human papillomavirus


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted disease in America and has given rise to sophisticated development diagnostics. HPV has existed for years as an ancient virus. This has however seen different types of HPV discovered. This virus is mostly associated with a cervical cancer patient (Cubie, 2013). Most patients were found to be suffering from the virus as per the many diagnostics conducted at that time across the country. Technological advancement in the field of medicine has led to the discovery of about 120 types of the virus. The virus has different modes of transmission: vaginal and anal intercourse, genital contact that does not necessarily involve penetration, and oral sex.  There are modes of transmission that are less prevalent. For instance, transmission by fomites. For females, the risks of contracting HPV are higher in the sense that immunosuppressed women are more vulnerable. The amount of sex partners and the general sexual behavior of partners also counts (Dadding, 2013).

If one has several partners, then the chances of contracting the virus become higher especially if the partner had several other sexual partners. For men, the chances of contracting the virus increases when they keep many sex partners and in the event that one is not circumcised. Generally, high risks types of the HPV virus are identified by low-grade cervical cellular changes, cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and higher cervical cellular changes. The types of HPV that are mostly associated with above 70% of cancer cases are 16 and 18. The gay and lesbian communities of the American continent also get infected by this virus. This occurs when there is genital to genital contact. These individuals equally suffer the risks as much as the straight community (Gates, 2011).

In my opinion, the straight community as far as sexual orientation is concerned is more likely to contract HPV than gays and lesbians. This can be supported by the various findings that have been developed by devices used in the study and the development of diagnostics with regard to the virus. The different types pose several challenges to the medical and research teams that endeavor to find a breakthrough as far as prevention and cure of the virus are concerned (Bowring, 2013). The fact that most individuals tend to keep many sexual partners compromises their sexual health. The virus can be transmitted through various modes including sexual contact be it oral, anal, or vaginal.

Women who get involved in sexual practices with uncircumcised men tend to be more vulnerable. Along these lines, men tend to be having more than one sexual partner creating a network that makes it easy to get infected. The gay and lesbian community, however, according to statistics and recent findings have fewer new infections (Farnsworth, 2011). This is because they have a few areas of risk. The level of genital to genital infections is less prevalent as compared to vaginal and oral sex and comprises the main sexual practices of straight individuals. These issues are presented every year as new infections are realized. These in effect prompt the relevant departments to conduct research and ways of dealing with the various types of the HPV virus. All sexes are subject to infections since the modes of transmission of the virus are numerous. Women seem to be affected most. This is followed by the men and lastly the gay and lesbian community.




Cubie, H. A. & Cuschieri, K. (2013). Understanding HPV tests and their appropriate applications. Cytopathology, 24(5), 289-308.

Dudding, N., & Crossley, J. (2013). Sensitivity and specificity of HPV testing: what are the facts? Cytopathology, 24(5), 283-288.

Gates, G. J. How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?[Research brief]. 2011.

Bowring, J., Albrow, R., Fisher, A., Downey, G., Cullimore, J., Patnick, J., … & Kitchener, H. C. (2013). A prospective study of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing to resolve uncertainty in colposcopy. Cytopathology, 24(5), 309-313.

Farnsworth, A. (2011). Screening for the prevention of cervical cancer in the era of human papillomavirus vaccination: An Australian perspective. Acta Cytologica, 55(4), 307-312.