The purpose of this paper is to explore the physical, psychological, and social environment of aircraft on long haul, operations, and the effects on the crew. Long haul and ultra long haul flight is regarded as a tiring experience. Other objectives of the paper include finding out how the intangible, tangible as well as the social features of long haul flight are supposed to maintain the experience. The paper explores the experience as a whole, putting more emphasis on the perception over various components that relate to comfort, requirements, and satisfaction. Factors including emotions, preferences, as well as expectations as associated with the physical, social and psychological effects are examined.
In many work environments, health is an issue of sensitivity because of physical and psychological environmental impacts and social stigma for the affected persons and the organization where problematic issues have been detected. Psychological suitability of work is entrenched within the practices and regulations that are operating in all work places as well as across occupational groupings including in the airline industry. Air travel is mainly regarded as a traumatic experience and travel related anxieties and fears are very common. The various parts of comfort level comprise of the social status, physical comfort, as well as psychological comfort within the experience of the ultra long and long flights. Aircraft types are categorized in accordance to the sitting arrangement, the cabin crew capacity, as well as other technical aspects including wingspan, speed, range, and type of engine. The level of comfort can be informally described as a set of social, physical, or psychological condition in which an individual feels most at ease and free from discomfort and stress.
In an aircraft, the physical environment includes the air quality, the oxygen level, mobility, temperature, and the interior design. Aircraft physical environments are increasingly transforming due to the technological advancements that witnessed across many societies over the years. Novel requirements and advancements in technology and comfort are constantly changing. These include the development of the interior designs of the aircrafts. The cabin seats are being improved into lightweight seats, the air in the cabin is being improved among other physical changes that can make the long haul flight experience more enjoyable and comfortable (Vink, 2011).
The physical environment in the airplane is known to be cramped and contains very dry as compared to the outside air. This makes the flying experience uncomfortable to the cabin crew and normally the cabin crew end up experiencing flu like symptoms. Headaches, light-headedness, sore throats, coughs, dry lips as well as dry or watery eyes are some of the common outcomes that normally result from the lack of fresh air in the airplane.
Inside the airplane, the cabin crews normally breathe out approximately 25 percent less oxygen as compared to on the sea level because of the pressure inside the plane. When setting the altitude in the cabin, 3 key features affect the cabin crew comfort including oxygen, carbon dioxide, and humidity levels.
The air composition ratio of oxygen normally remains at 21 percent in spite of altitude. Although the air pressure normally drops as altitude decreases, the amount of oxygen molecules per breath normally decreases. As the airplane passes six thousand feet, the carbon dioxide levels normally increases in the blood stream and this may result in shortness of an individual’s breath, queasiness, loss of the desire for food, mild headache, as well as fatigue. Humidity is another affecting element and is more linked to temperature than air pressure. When the cabin temperature drops, the activity of the cabin crew also drops. This normally results in the overall decrease in the necessity of oxygen in the cabin crews’ bloodstreams (Broo, 2013). The air pressure inside the plane at cruising altitudes is usually lower as compared to the air pressure at sea level. This may have an effect on the cabin crew.
When flying at altitude range of between 11,000 to 12,200 meters, the air pressure inside the airplane is similar to the outside air pressure at heights between 1,800 and 2,400 meters above the sea level. Consequently, hypoxia normally occurs where minimal oxygen is taken up by blood, resulting to expansion of gases within the body. Normally such conditions inside the plane are well tolerated by the healthy cabin crew. The cabin air is estimated to be adequate for the crewmembers. However, the level of oxygen decreases in the bloodstream compared to the sea level due to relatively minimal cabin pressure. Cabin crew suffering from heart and lung illness as well as blood disorders like anemia are at higher risk of not enduring the decreased levels of oxygen in their bloodstreams (Vink, 2011).
Humidity inside the aircraft is normally less than 20 percent, which is very low. The normally humidity in the outside environment is usually above 30 percent. These conditions of low humidity may result in various kinds of symptoms like skin dryness as well as eye discomfort. However, this does not affect an individual’s health. Prevention of discomfort can be achieved by the use of a skin moisturizer lotion (Broo, 2013). The low humidity however does not lead to dehydration and thus it is not necessary to drink extra fluids. Another physical environment factor that may affect the cabin crew is Ozone. These may enter into the aircraft with the fresh air supply at higher altitudes. In very old airplanes, it is possible to have very high percentages of the ozone levels that result in lung irritations, the eyes, as well as the nasal tissues. At present the modern airplanes contains equipments like compressors in their engines that eliminate the ozone from inbound air. They also have catalytic converters that are useful in breaking down the remaining ozone (Vink, 2011).
Whilst the vast majority of the cabin crewmembers are extremely competent individuals of sound brains, they are not immune to psychological problems. The life of the cabin crewmembers especially when on long haul flights can be very stressing and it is significant that the line managers react immediately to warning signals of psychological distress. Psychological difficulties usually happen for the reason that air travel is not a natural act for humans. The most commonly known problem that the cabin crews face includes stress and fear of flying. These problems usually occur mutually or discretely and at varying times prior to and during the time of air travel. Other psychological signs that the cabin crew may develop include air rage, jet lag as we as culture shock, which implies that when, crew returns to their homes after the long haul flight and the time spent in varying cultures. Long haul flights generate stress due to the poor slept night involved. Fear of air travels has been categorized as a major phobia of the situational kind. This stands for a cabin crewmember who suffers constant and extreme fear triggered by air travels or the thought of travelling by a plane (Gottdiener, 2001).
The fear of air travel includes several conditions including fear of heights, being over water or having the plane land in water, fear of the unknown, thoughts of airline accidents as well as issues from the previous psychological and physical trauma. A cabin crewmember may suffer anxiety that may result in a panic attack. About 30 percent of the crew gets distressed about air travel and about 5 percent suffer from the actual terror at some point. Most of the cabin crewmembers who suffer from the flight fear are women. There are people who fear air travel for the reason that they suffer from fright disorder with what is known as agoraphobia, which implies that they fear experiencing a panic attack because they are in an aircraft. Such individuals also fear other situations other than just air travels (Gottdiener, 2001).
Air rage is connected to higher levels of stress, though not necessarily to air travel phobia. The air rage is considered as a disrupting behavior linked to air travel. The key ground for air rage rising includes the extreme alcohol intake prior to or after a flight. Other grounds for air rage include smoking bans, overcrowding, long tiring flights, and mental feelings of loss of control or problematic issues with the authority.
Jet lag is considered as a psychological comfort element that takes place after the flight. It has effects on both the body and the brain. There are numerous classic signs of jet lag, however, fatigue and disorientation are considered the strongest of all and is likely to occur for several days after one arrives to his/her destination. Whilst fatigue is considered as the key cause of stress among the cabin crewmembers, the nature of the long haul flights has much to explain concerning stress and fatigue. The cabin crew normally experience lack of concentration and motivation for any kind of activity that requires skill or effort. Individuals suffering from jet lags are at risk of getting upright when the long haul flight becomes a challenge after long hours spent in the aircraft and airports. The dry air inside the plane causes headaches, irritation of the nostrils and dry skin, resulting in dehydration.
Individuals’ legs and feet may uncomfortable when they swell, and some individuals may not be able to put on their normal shoes for even over twenty-four hours. Jet lags many cause other health issues like diarrhea that may result after microbes contaminate the feed taken while flying. The cabin crewmembers can manage jet lag by remaining on local time, employing relaxation techniques, as well as physical exercises. Jet lag is also said to reduce memory, attention duration, attentiveness, as well as awareness (Bor & Hubbard, 2006).
Numerous social environmental factors affect the cabin crewmembers. The cabin crew of the long haul flights faces separation from their family members as well as other social support systems. During air travel, they also have to interact with foreigners from different cultural backgrounds and languages and unfamiliar health and safety risks. These interactions may lead to great levels of stress that lead to physical, psychological as well as social problematic issues. A long haul cabin crewmember is less likely to have a steady family life and multiple marriages are very common. With relationship breakups and other problems being the highest on the list of life stressing events, this feature can push a person to the highest point of anxiety and probably into alcohol and substance abuse. A majority of the flight crew indulge in acts that are not usually conducive in promoting good health. These have serious effects on their physical and mental health. It is also a real danger to safety (Eriksen, 2009).
Customarily, the cabin crewmembers were being trained individually and it was presumed that individually competent crewmembers would be skillful and effectual members of a crew group. However, flight crews operate as teams and teams’ influences contributes in the determination of behavior and performance. Among the key social environmental factors that affect the cabin crew on long haul flights is leadership, crew collaboration, and teamwork as well as personality interaction. Educational programs intended to increase the collaboration and interaction between the crewmembers are significant in ensuring efficient as well as safe aircraft operation. Every time they have to report for a duty trip, the cabin crew must always engage in quick-paced process of forming and ending relationships (Turnbull, 2006).
The chance of developing a stable and supportive work relation with others are minimal. For some, this is usually tiring emotionally and may increase the sense of alienation and separation at work and at home. The feel that work and home relationships are under strain may affect a crew’s psychological health. Failure to maintain the social and work relationships may result in an individual to feel very lonely and depressed. This normally occurs when a crewmember is mainly alone during the long haul flight periods which followed by few social encounter at their homes.
A caring network of other significant individuals at home and work can be helpful to an individual when dealing with the everyday challenges such as disrupting passengers, financial uncertainties, physical wellbeing, and other situations linked to the personal life of the crewmembers. The nature of the social network usually varies from one person to the other, but particular features of the crew work schedule are perceived to challenge a crewmember’s ability of developing and maintaining social relations (Eriksen, 2009). The act of having to travel with new set of colleges each time one reports to work often results to short lasting relations. While it is acknowledged that the size of an individual’s relationship association and desire for social interaction at home may differ depending on a crewmember, the significance of time management, prioritization as well as decision making when trying to balance work requirements and social life is emphasized.
Crewmembers normally work in shifts, meaning there is always changing fix of persons working during each shift. As a result, their personal relationships are greatly affected because of the longer periods away from their families (Turnbull, 2006). Such difficulties results in feeling of separation and loneliness. Built up sleep deprivation may make everything feel difficult to handle and may result in work stress, physical and well as emotional health issues. The crewmembers can overcome these difficult situations on their own or utilizing the support network around them. Others may seek professional help. Cabin crewmembers just like the ground workers strive to ensure an adequate work-social life balance, look after the emotional comfort, and have a high degree of work motivation regardless of the longer duty hours and the regular absence from their homes (Eriksen, 2009).
Just like any other work environment, the, psychological, and social environment of aircraft also affects the long haul cabin crew. The various parts of comfort level comprise of the social status, physical comfort, as well as psychological comfort within the experience of the ultra long and long flights. In an aircraft, the physical environment includes the air quality, the oxygen level, mobility, temperature, and the interior design. The physical environment in the airplane is known to be cramped and contains very dry as compared to the outside air. This makes the flying experience uncomfortable to the cabin crew and normally the cabin crew end up experiencing flu like symptoms. Psychological difficulties usually happen for the reason that air travel is not a natural act for humans.
The most commonly known problem that the cabin crews face includes stress and fear of flying. These problems usually occur mutually or discretely and at varying times prior to and during the time of air travel. Other psychological signs that the cabin crew may develop include air rage, jet lag as we as culture shock, which implies that when, crew returns to their homes after the long haul flight and the time spent in varying cultures. Numerous social environmental factors affect the cabin crewmembers. The cabin crew of the long haul flights faces separation from their family members as well as other social support systems. During air travel, they also have to interact with foreigners from different cultural backgrounds and languages and unfamiliar health and safety risks. These interactions may lead to great levels of stress that lead to physical, psychological as well as social problematic issues.
Bor, R., & Hubbard, T. (2006). Aviation mental health: Psychological implications for air transportation. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Broo, S. (2013). Experiencing Long Haul Flight.
Eriksen, C. (2009). Managing work and relationships at 35,000 feet: A practical guide for making personal life fit aircrew shift work, jetlag, and absences from home. London: Karnac Books.
Gottdiener, M. (2001). Life in the air: surviving the new culture of air travel. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Turnbull, G. J. (2006). The Psychiatric Evaluation of Air Crew. Aviation Mental Health: Psychological Implications for Air Transportation, 127.
Vink, P. (2011). Aircraft interior comfort and design (Vol. 5). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
h as the daily accounts records and sales books need to be perused in details. These documents in the appropriation of the damage caused to the business by the act of widening the highway. The reason as to why I will demand for these documents is to ascertain the damage as well as prepare my submission in a court hearing upon complainant consent to use the particular documents as evidence.
The examination for discovery will involve the AAA body shop limited lawyer and the manager in charge. This will be a fact finding mission in the sense that questions about the list of documents outlined will be asked. A court reporter will provide the facility to be used upon booking. The complainant lawyer will guide his client about the disclosure of information contained in the documents while answering the questions. The reason behind the examination is to familiarize myself with the documents presented as evidence in the court. The following represents the list of questions to be answered by the complainant (AAA body shop ltd manager).
- How much was your gross income per month before expropriation?
- How much profit was the business making on a daily basis before the expropriation?
- In what manner has your customers traffic been affected by the ordeal?
- Were you aware of the city’s plan to expand the highway before you acquired the land?
- How does flagging of traffic affect your business operation?
- Which additional costs have you incurred as a result of expropriation?
- How much loss have you suffered in the event?
- Was there prior notice as well as caution before the event took place?
- How did you prepare yourself for the ordeal before it happened?
- Are there any benefits you have achieved from the endeavor?
The information provided during discovery will be essential in preparing legal defense documents and submissions for the defendant who is the City of Surrey. Some of the arguments that arise from the discovery process include the appropriation of financial implication resulting results from the new initiative. This is because the complainant may give the wrong estimates about the loss incurred in regard to the matter at hand. On the other hand, there are new evidences about customer flow in and out of the premises. Fresh data collected will be applied in further discussion in counter attacking the claims by the complainant. The court reporter will issue out the transcripts upon payment of transcript fees and court reporter fee. The original transcript is kept for further evidence during trial. This is an essential step in the preparation of the defendant evidence that is applied for defence.
Lastly, arguments about the costs, revenue and damages caused by the expansion process will be determined through an appropriation method. This is where expert estimates the exact amount of loss AAA body shop ltd has incurred during the process. In case of any misrepresentation of such information, the defence finds grounds for argument in a case. This is because of the fact that the complainant may overestimate the damages caused thus submitting false evidence in a court of law.