Sample Essay on History and Theory of Aesthetics

What Plato considers being real

Plato considers that the more objective a concept is, the realer it would be the thing that the concept represents. This is indicated by the way objectivity is applied to differentiate between appearance and reality of an object. The more objective that could be derived from an object, the more real the object would be. According to Plato, forms are more objective when compared with the material objects. The argument hence supports that forms are realer when comparing them with the material objects and hence they are ultimately real entities. According to Plato, the argument is that every material object is copy or an image of some collection of forms, and hence their reality only comes from the forms. For example, separating a basketball from its weight and color and think of it inform of its roundness. According to Plato, the form roundness existed in other different modes apart from basketball in that all round objects copy and participate in the same form of roundness (Sriraman 132).

Plato’s mistrust of sensory perception

Plato contended that there existed a reality outside human experiences that caused his development of distrust on sensory perception. He objected that there are high chances of having the whole world outside the human’s perceptions. This would be contrary to sensory perception that humans could be having and hence confirming his distrust of it. For example, considering a person born out of Hollywood movies, they would not be aware of existence of actors, camera operator, director, film sets, and they would think that whatever they watched is the reality. Another example is of a caveman who observes a shadow and thinks there is an object, failing to understand there could be other things causing the shadow like sunshine, objects, light among others.  (Groves 187).

Gilpin’s concept of the picturesque and how does it differ from Reynolds academic notion of beauty

Gilpin in his concept defined the picturesque in a tautological manner as the kind of beauty that is pleasant in a picture. In his concept, picturesque can be interpreted as beautiful and sublime. Picturesque as a beautiful refers to the smoothness, order and, regularity while as, as a sublime it comprises of magnitude, intimations of powers and vastness.  Gilpin concept of picturesque beauty defined beautiful objects like the ones that please the eyes from some qualities that can be illustrated in painting, for example the beauty of landscape due to it smooth appearance in a picture. Reynolds academic notion of beauty is explained in picturesque being restricted to natural objects. Reynolds concepts of picturesque are restricted to the work of nature contrary to Gilpin that is based on the painting. (Allison 55).

Immanuel Kant definition of aesthetic experience

Kant developed a theory that defined aesthetic experience as being contemplative. He managed to come up with the definition through carrying out an analysis of four moments. The moments are; modality, quality, relation and quantity that he believed they create an aesthetic feeling in the perceiver.

Immanuel Kant concepts of disinterestedness relation to beauty

Kant introduced two types of interest in his concept of aesthetic judgment that are, the way of sensation in the agreeable and by way of concepts in the good. He explained that only aesthetic judgment is free from any of the two interests. Interest refers to the linkage between action and the real desire and hence a determining link to the real existence of the object. Aesthetic judgment hence describes that the real existence of a beautiful object is irrelevant. According to Kant aesthetic judgment is only concerned with form. A shape, an arrangement in the objected presented and not a sensible content of color or tone. For example, in a case of a music student taking a music theory test might listen for certain particular keys or chord progressions, having the main goal of listening the music to pass a test rather than listen to the music to enjoy it, or for the experience of listening to it (Zuckert 54).

Immanuel Kant concepts of purposiveness without purpose relation to beauty

Kant explained that the beauty has to be interpreted and understood as purposive, but it should not be attached to any definite purpose. A definite purpose refers to the intent that a thing was to accomplish or what it was intended to be like. Either according to utility or perfection could judge the process of making. Kant argues that even if beauty is purposive, it is not equivalent to either utility or perfection. As a result, beauty in nature would hence appear to have purposive according to Kant concerning human’s faculty of judgment, but its beauty would not have any ascertainable purpose. For example, an artist could be having an idea that wants to communicate, for instance a song, or a certain mood to express but this could not be enough grounds for the object to be beautiful (Zuckert 68).

Works Cited

Allison, Henry E. Kant’s theory of taste: a reading of the Critique of aesthetic judgment. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Groves, Stephen. “The sound of the English picturesque in the age of the landscape garden.” Eighteenth-Century Music 9.02 (2012): 185-212.

Sriraman, Bharath. “The influence of Platonism on mathematics research and theological beliefs.” Theology and Science 2.1 (2004): 131-147.

Zuckert, Rachel. Kant on Beauty and Biology: An Interpretation of the’Critique of Judgment’. Cambridge University Press, 2