Sample Paper on Retrospective Analysis of Personality

Reflect on your life history and discuss which aspects of your personality have changed over time and which aspects have stayed consistent.

The aspects of my personality that are based on culture have not changed but my own personal standards and ethics have changed over the period of time. This is because my culture stems from the ethnic background of the members, geographic tendencies, food and drinks preferences and the influence of various immigrants. It has been centuries old and it define how an individual is supposed to live his or her life and govern his decision making in the times of gravest problems of his life. This means that in order to change myself culturally, I will have to change the way I think, behave and act at innumerable circumstances of life. My personal standards and ethical values have changed with the exposure to various forces of globalization. This has resulted into blurring of physical boundaries between the countries and the ideological barriers. Business and corporate professionals need to travel to countries and places with diverse social norms and cultural protocols which sometimes oppose their own national and personal principles. When an individual decides to live in a new country, it is imperative that he/she embraces the new culture, including the language, completely, even if it means giving up the ‘old’ culture.

Based on your retrospective analysis, describe the roles of nature and nurture in shaping your personality. Reflect on your justification for distinguishing between nature and nurture.

Socio-economic status and factors are a part of individual’s family, community, economic status, spending power, educational level and level of social exposure of the individual. Socio-economic background is an integral part of one’s personality, mind-set and behavioural attributes. Sociologists throughout the world have emphasized on the importance of both nature and nurture in contributing towards development of criminal tendencies of an individual. Gangsters are a kind of criminals that are regarded as gravest of all kinds of criminals. They lack the normal possessions of a common man because of lack of any attachments with other human beings and thus lack of any emotional drive towards life (Dotter, 2004).

According to many criminologists, choice model is maybe the most popular motive why convicts commit crimes they do. This theory proposes that the criminal is totally sensible when making the judgment to commit a crime. The diversity of motives in which one offends can be grounded on a diversity of individual needs, comprising: greediness, retaliation, necessity, rage, desire, suspicion, adventures, and conceit.


Discuss the possible sources of bias and inaccuracy whenever a person looks back on their past history. Be sure to discuss factors related to memory and factors related to cognition.

Innatism is a metaphysical dogma that holds that the mind is born with idea or information, and that consequently the mind is not a ‘blank slate’ at birth, as early pragmatists such as John Locke claimed. It declares consequently that not all information is attained from knowledge and the senses. In attitude and mind, an innate idea is a idea or item of information which is supposed to be worldwide to all humankind—that is, somewhat people are congenital with rather than something people have educated through involvement.

The subject is contentious, and can be said to be a feature of a long-running nature versus nurture debate, albeit one restricted to the query of understanding human reasoning. Even though distinct human beings obviously differ due to national, ethnic, philological and era-specific influences, inborn ideas are said to belong to a more important level of humanoid cognition. For example, the philosopher René Descartes hypothesized that information of God is innate in everybody as a product of the ability of faith.

Describe why the science of psychology places more emphasis on results based on scientific studies than it does on personal experience and anecdotes.

There are two ways in which animals can gain information. The first of these two ways is knowledge. This is when an animal collects information about its neighboring situation and then profits to use this info. For instance, if an animal eats something that harms its stomach, it has learned not to eat this once more. The second way that an animal can acquire information is through innate information. This information is hereditarily congenital. The animal mechanically knows it without any prior knowledge. An instance of this is when a horse is born and can immediately walk. The horse has not educated this conduct; it simply knows how to do it. In some scenarios, innate information is more valuable than learned information. Though, in other scenarios the conflicting is true.

The Causal Theory is a progressive and controversial theory based upon cause and effect.  It assumes that there are very few genetically driven causes for behavior for humans in general and none for individual traits. The few universal drives are for all of us. They include abilities to recognize emotions and perceive treatment; a drive to seek love, nurturing and protection; a drive to imprint and re-enact; curiosity about causation in the world, others and us; and a need to grow and learn inevitable lessons. How parents address these drives in our childhood determines our individualized type of thinking, our endeavors in adulthood and the nature of our society.

The Causal Theory undertakes that nature and behavior, comprising and especially adult behavior, result from childhood involvements beginning from birth, and maybe even previously. It includes attachment theory, lessons from shock theory, domestic organizations theory, some behavioral and cognitive representations, biopsychology and Zen.






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Burke, Peter (1996). The Fortunes of the Courtier University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01517-9

Fortier, Alex. ‘Multicultural Horizons: Diversity and the Limits of the Civil Nation’. Taylor & Francis. 2008. Print. Last retrieved 15th November 2014

Mattei, Dorothy.  Paradigms in the Social Sciences, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 16, (2001). Print. Last retrieved 15th November 2014

Muchembled, Robert. “Manners, Courts, and Civility” In Ruggiero, Giudo, editor, A Companion to the Worlds of the Renaissance (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006), pp. 156–173

Ridling, Zaine (2001). “Philosophy: Then and Now A look back at 26 centuries of thought.” Types and Expressions of Rationalism, pp. 514–515. Access Foundation