Sample Essay on Exam Questions

  1. According to class lecture, when did the Cold War begin and end? Was there any fighting between nation-states during the Cold War? If there was please provide examples of where this fighting occurred.

The Cold War began in the year 1947 and ended in the year 1991 immediately after the end of the second world war. During the war there was no physical fighting, but instead it was ideological fighting between two super powers after the World War II. Therefore, it was a period of intense political, economical and military mistrust and tension between the Soviet Union and USA. These were the two strong and influential super powers commonly known as the Eastern bloc representing Soviet Union and the Western block comprising of US and NATO.

  1. Based on discussions provided in your textbook, compare and contrast the main features of realism, liberalism and idealism in the study of international relations?

Idealism is a concept of international relation is based on the ideology that in order to achieve international compatibility, nations should make their internal political philosophy to be in line with foreign policy. On the other hand, liberalism is the concept which is based on the ideology that in order to achieve international compatibility nation need to develop international bodies that promote and monitor their engagements. Finally, realism is the concept which applies the ideology that in the struggle for power and position conflict always results and in case of conflicts nations will always strive to protect their interest. Depending on the school of thought all the theories apply to the interpretation of international relation between nations and states.

  1. According to class lectures, were leading scholars correct in their predictions of the nature of the New World Order following the end of the Cold War?  What did they predict?

The leading scholars where correct in their prediction of the new world order. They had predicted that due to the increasing number of agreements being signed by nations, there will come a time when powerful nations will push for implementation of a single binding treaty. Further, they also predicted that the order will require all human race to have a common identification criteria. This would help in tracking of individuals and therefore make it simple to track criminals. Additionally, they predicted that it will be a basis for the determination of the basis of trade

  1. According to class lectures, what US official is quoted as saying: “We are not winning.”?

These words were said by former US president George W bush. He was making a statement in regards to the Iraq war in which US was greatly involved. This was after the war that had been scheduled to last for a short period was prolonged while on the other hand US casualties and fatalities were increasing in numbers. He intended to pass the information that they have to increase military presence and change strategies in order to win the war.

  1. According to class lectures, how has Ukraine has been caught in the middle of a political contest between Russia and the US in Eastern Europe? What does this contest have to do with the practice of U.S. interventionism overseas? Who is at fault in eastern Europe?

Ever since the Cold War ended, Ukraine has been the battleground for supremacy battles between pro-European allies and pro-Russia factions. Russia has maintained its efforts to control the larger East, considered as its satellite and the US attempts to control the encroachment of Russia influence in the larger Eastern block. Russia has used both military intervention and gas cutoff to maintain its control in Eastern Europe, which it considers as its stronghold in preventing any further Western infiltration. On the other hand, the US considers Ukraine an important ally in fronting its policies in the Eastern block and containing the rise and growth of Russia. Such is a tactic used by the US to gain military and political control of regions it has an interest in and desires to push for its political and foreign policies. The US has over the years used strategic positions in the Middle East for purposes of containment and intervention while at the same time pushing its foreign policies. Within the context of the continued US-Russian conflict, both countries are at fault in waging wars in foreign countries resulting in political instability and humanitarian crisis.


  1. Who was Samuel Huntington and how was he described in class? What was his contribution? What did he predict concerning the emerging world order following the Cold War?

Samuel Huntington was a political scientist an academician and a political adviser, further, he is described as a prophet who foretold about the ideologies of the New World Order. He contributed by shedding light to the New World Order concept through his book. Further, he contributed by explaining about the real ideas behind the New World Order. He predicted that after the end of the cold war US and its sister nations will demand every nation to subscribe to the order with a view of having one global leadership and regulations. However, in his prediction he mentions Islam as the greatest challenge to the implementation of the order.

  1. According to class lectures, what other major world organizations exist besides the U.N? What is the World Bank, IMF, the WTO, the WHO, the ICC, the Red Cross, the Red Crescent, Doctors Without Borders and NATO? How do these organizations contribute to the maintenance of the world order?

These are international organization that are recognized world wide in promoting international relationship, aids monetary assistance and justice. They have the freedom to operate from any part of the world without any restriction as long as they are member state. The policies of these organizations are common. These organizations promoted the ideology of having a central leadership basing on the notion that all humanity are faced with the same problems but at different intensities.

  1. According to class lectures, what is Bretton Woods and what does it stand for in international relations? According to class lectures is the US under the new Trump administration embracing or moving away from the international order and its institutions like the U.N.? Is this trend limited to the US, or is it also found among other major powers around the world?

Breton Woods is the city in which the Breton Wood agreement was reached. This agreement is important in controlling international monetary policies and exchange of currencies

Under the leadership of Trump, America is moving away from international order, this is because it is in a bid to shed of associated with nations and concentrate more on building America for the natives. This trend is common in most countries and not only limited to US

  1. According to class lectures, what does bipolarity and multipolarity refer to? Does it still describe the contemporary international system? Explain your answer.

Bipolarity is a situation where to players or bloc need to control other player in the international arena, therefore they are prone to cold war rather than physical war of ideologies an the other hand, multipolarity is where there are several players in the international relation. These describe contemporary international system this is because they lead to balance of power between nations

  1. According to class lectures how do the political scientists define politics? How do the political scientists define power? What are the unique characteristics of the political system? What flaw in the way political scientists define power was discussed during class?

Politics is the process of achieving and getting a position of governance and authority while Power is the ability to influence or change peoples perspective about an idea. Unique characteristics of a political system include; it has universality, it is mixed in terms of culture, it is composed of interdependent organs, and it has structures that govern it.

11.Based on your text, describe briefly the major approaches and perspectives in the study of international relations, e.g., the realist, idealist, Marxist, and feminist perspectives?

Realist-realism is the concept which applies the ideology that in the struggle for power and position conflict always results and in case of conflict nations will always strive to protect their interest

Idealist-Idealism is a concept of international relation is based on the ideology that in order to achieve international compatibility, nations should make their internal political philosophy to be in line with foreign policy

Marxist- this is the perspective that studies international relation on the basis of material gains and material history between nations

Feminist- a group of scholars who view international relation in terms of gender representation

  1. According to class lectures, what does it mean to say that the international system is essentially hobbesean?

This indicates that it is a system which is made up of units with immense strength such that even the weakest can prevail over the strongest when it is at its most vulnerable point. It also implies that given the ideology, then is it difficult to have an international relation that is not govern by an authority.. In such a case to combat conflict in situations of international associations, then it is important to consider forming an authority that will govern the processes of integration.

  1. According to class lectures, what are the three essential properties of globalization? Elaborate and explain these three properties.
  2. Globalization is inevitable and irreversible- this implies that even in the event of the existence of political and ideological differences globalization still dominates due to its importance.
  3. Interdependence- this means that globalization promotes the act of sharing and depending on each other since no particular nation can exist by itself.
  • It is a mindset- this is the underlying property of globalization. It of as wide and wild as the mind.
  1. According to class lectures, how might American foreign policy and its comparative styles and approaches to world order be characterized under presidents George W. Bush, Barak Obama and Donald Trump?

Under president Bush America had little ties and poor reputation with the Asian countries. Further, it had no great ties with Africa, it relied on its military strength rather than consensus. However, during president Obama time, it created links with African countries, and the Muslim world. During his error there was little use of force and great use of consensus. Finally, in president Trumps leadership country is likely to cut links with the Muslim word and Africa.

15.According to your textbook, what does Thomas Friedman means by the expression the golden straightjacket? Please provide concrete examples.

Thomas Friedman is referring to Washington consensus prescription. By this he is implying that is is reducing the political and policy choice for people in power and therefore there is no much difference between those in power and those in opposition.

  1. According to class lectures, what do U.S. intelligence agencies, including the CIA accused Russia of doing to the US in 2016-17? What has been the reaction of Presidents Obama and Trump to these accusations? Is this controversy over yet? If it is not, please explain why?

Intelligence agencies accused Russia of plotting to help Trump to Win US elections and ascend to power. Obama reacted by calling for an investigation into the accusations while at the same time rubbishing of the claims. On the other hand, Trump accessed the Obama administration of trying to blackmail him in his bid to the White house. The issue has seemed to die off after the winning of Trump and the failure of the intelligence to gather enough concrete evidence.

17.According to your textbook, what does MAD stand for and how is it related to weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)? Were WMDs ever found in Iraq? 

MAD is an acronym for Mutually Assured destruction, this is a military strategy involving dangerous weapons, precisely nuclear weapons. In this strategy, while on war and both the attacker and the defense are equipped with nuclear weapons, then neither of them can initiate an attack nor initiate a disarming exercise. It is related to WMD because the strategy requires restricted use of WMD. However complicated, WMS was found in Iraq nonetheless it remains uncertain which of the warring sides used them in the event of war.

18 According to your textbook is terrorism a new phenomenon that first emerged during the closing days of the Cold War as a new commodity in the emerging new world order?  How does your text explain the origins of terrorism? What are its roots?

In a way, yes, but a closer observation of the growth and origin of terrorism and terrorist network, terrorism emerged and grew stronger towards the end of the Cold War because of the bitter rivalry and suspicion that the Soviet Union had towards the Western Allies. Although terrorism started way back in the 1st century, it grew and adopted a violent outfit towards the end of the Cold War and the involvement of the Western Allies in Soviet Union wrangles especially with countries such as Syria, Afhanistan, Iraq, and Iran. Arab ethnic groupings coalesced together in the interest of their key leaders to safeguard regions they deemed their territories. As the fascist and anarchist groupings grew stronger, they received funding from sympathizers who used their outfit to promote their agenda which was to expand their territories and avoid any form of western influence. The phenomenon, therefore had its roots from groupings that promoted anti colonial struggles in the Middle East.


  1. According to class lectures, how has this controversy discussed in question 16, above, affected government officials linked to President Trump? Explain your answer in detail and provide examples.

The accusations about a close Trump-Russia link has given rise to an uncomfortable relationship between several Trump officials with some such the Former National Security Adviser Mr. Michael Flynn’s resignation. Due to unknown reasons Flynn was accused of lying under oath of a possible link and communication between his office and the Russians. Although the issue has gradually died down, investigations into the issue has brought Trump’s administration and the CIA under intense scrutiny further giving rise to a frosty relationship between the White House and the CIA.The scandal has hit Trump’s administration to an extent that much about the issue of the White House is unclear. Trump’s officials have grown tight limped with many not wanting to be associated with the entire issue. Trump on the other hand has been forced to protect his officials from blame on the entire issue further eroding his relationship with the former President Mr. Obama. On several occasions, Trump has laid blame on Obama for fueling a non-issue during and after a bitterly contested campaign. Many of Trump’s officials such as the Attorney General, Jeff Session has taken to protect his reputation by denying any form of communication with the Russian administration.


  1. What parable offered by Dr. Fazlur Rahman of The University of Chicago was described in class? How does this parable relate to recent controversies in the War on Terror? According to class lectures, describe the meaning of the expression: failure is an orphan, but success has a thousand fathers.”

Fazlur predication’s was a Defeat to the terror groups and an invasion of much of the Middle East with American troops. Fazlur gives an impression of a third world war majorly fought between America and its Allies and the terror groups led by the new IS in Syria.

Failure as an Ophard but success has a thousand fathers. This expression means that failure has no relations, and is often bound to stand alone. However, success has many connections and to be successful, one has to develop a network of connection to make it in life.

  1. What references to the Bible and Qur’an regarding the matter of human free will were mentioned in class in connection with question 20, above? What implications do these references raise regarding human free will? What implications do they raise regarding our ability to blame U.S. Presidents for political outcomes witnessed in Iraq and with the emergence of ISIS in 2014?

The success of any endeavor often depends on the ability to make wise decisions. The decision by the United States Presidents over the years has often raised the question of the free will to use one’s powers and privileges. The ability to act as one desires and deems fit does not necessarily mean that one has to undermine and take advantage of others predicaments. Although the United States President stands accused of waging unnecessary wars on its enemies, it stems from the fact that the American constitutions give them the freedom to act within their powers protected by law.

  1. America is engaged in a war of survival in Scheuer’s view, a conflict in which the choices are between what two things:

The choice between the country’s self interest and maintaining the world super power status.

  1. According to Michael Scheuer, from the perspective of the US, “the enemy’s most important motivation” is what? How does Scheuer explain his answer? Would Scheuer agree with the often repeated statement in the West that “terrorist hate us for our freedoms and democratic way of life”? Why? Please explain your answer.

According to Michael Scheuer, the enemy’s most important motivation is to see their victims succumb to their power. Yes, Michael Scheuer, would fully agree with the statement that terrorists would be happy if and when the democratic ideals of the US break down and their freedom limited.

  1. In light of the above, according to Scheuer, what must the US do? Please explain your answer in detail and be as clear and precise as you can.

According to the above observation by Scheur, the US must protect its borders, its ideals, its constitution and stand by to see the terrorists defeated. In order to carry out this, it must realign its foreign policies with the aim of defeating and crushing out all sympathizers of terrorists.

  1. According to Scheuer, the US cannot win if it relies entirely on what two tools at its disposal? Explain Scheuer’s answer in detail.

The US cannot win the war if it entirely depends on its allies and the United Nations. It has to go beyond its outlined foreign policies, craft a military and diplomatic strategy with like minded countries such as Britain to crush out the terrorists.


26.Scheuer’s YouTube talk according to his own description has a decidedly radicalization edge? What official in the US government is best known for having this same edge (like that of Michael Scheuer)? Why? Explain your answer.

Eric Holder’s hold the same edge as Michael Scheuer as both of them believe that the United States should flame tensions in order to win the war against terror globally. According to the two US officials, the US has not done enough to bring the terrorists under control and eradicate terrorism.

27.According to Michael Scheuer, what is the greatest gift from the US to the terrorists? According to Micxhael Scheuer, the greatest gift from the US to the terrorist is waging war within the terrorists regions.


  1. What recent example of this greatest gift described in question 27, above was identified in class lectures? Be sure to elaborate.

The war in Syria is one such example in which the terrorists have an opportunity to engage with the Americans in their own soil, within their own boundaries.

29.Although world attention has focused primarily on the ongoing migration crisis in Europe, the world’s largest region for refugees, which includes the world’s the largest refugee camp is located where? According to your text what is the name of this camp and what pressing problems does it continue to face?


According to the UNHCR, Asia and the Pacific remain the largest refugee region. The region holds over 7.7 million refugees, including stateless people, refugees, and internally displaced persons. According to statistics, Myanmar holds the largest number of refugees from different regions across the Middle East.

30.According to your textbook, what is meant by balance of power and the US Cold War policy of containment?  Does the system of containment still exist in US policy toward China? How relevant and effective do you believe such a system would be today? Please explain your answer.

Balance of power means that all countries in the world wield equal power.

The US cold war containment policy was a strategy employed by the US government to prevent further spread of the ideologies of communism beyond the borders of Russia during the cold war. The US employed the strategy to prevent Russia from spreading its ideologies to neighboring countries such as Turkey. The system still exists, but indirectly. The US has employed different different political and economic strategies that have continued to isolate China and its close neighboring countries. It explains why China’s communist manifesto continuing to die with little influence on its neighboring countries.

  1. According to class lectures how might one characterize relations between Russia and many Eastern European states (including Ukraine and Moldova)? What are the reasons behind these relations?

Initially during the early 1990s and 2005, the relationship between Russia and much of Europe was strong with promising trade agreements and transactions. However, into the late 2000, the relationships grew strained, cold, and hostile. Many of the countries in Europe imposed punitive sanctions on Russia. On the other hand, Russia threatened to cut off trade and opening cold war with many of the European countries. Currently, with the ongoing Syrian conflict, Russia is on its own and its relationship with other European countries is at its worst.

  1. According to class lectures, what is the motivation behind the expression, resurgent Russia? What is the background behind it? Who is currently leading it? What are some concrete illustrations of the phenomenon known as resurgent Russia?

Russia’s motivation is to rise as the new world superpower. The collapse of Russia explains the renewed energy behind its attempt to establish itself economic and military-wise. Over the last couple of years since the collapse of the USSR, Russia has gradually taken stock on some of the aspects and factors that propelled it to success prior to its downfall. It is now making attempts to make economic progress, flex its powers within the MIddle East, and deal with some of its demographic issues such. The revolution is currently being led by Putin.

  1. What does the expression “Reset” mean in connection with Russia and how has this unmet ambition been approached by Bush, Obama and Trump presidential administrations and with what results? According to class lectures, what is the motivation behind the “reset” in the


Reset in terms of Russian and US relations signified Obama’s attempt to improve and mend the relationship between Russia and the United States. Presented by the then Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton. It was a symbolic gesture to reach out to Russia to mend their strained relationship.