The chapter covers the classical neontological arguments for genetics and speciation. There are some aspects of adaptation in relation to sex that violates every aspect of Darwinism. For instance, the blue tail of a Peacock makes it beautiful to attract male and at the same time making it maladaptive for survival since the tail makes it unable to fly to escape from predators. The chapter clearly identifies that sexual dimorphisms make the males and females different in traits such as tails, color, and songs. These sexually dimorphic traits violated the evolutionary theory since they wasted time and energy to reduce survival of the species. A peacock’s plumage is an essential adaptation in attracting the mates and at the same time to hinder its survival.
According to a study done in the University of Sweden, birds with long tails and the immediate effects of shedding off their tails were linked to a more weight loss than in the shorter-tailed males. Birds with extended tails were considered a handicap. Colors also influenced the survival of the species. The predator easily identifies colorful male guppies than the plainer females. Additionally, the bright color of birds seems to attract women but also the prey.
The chapter outlines that the currency of selection is not merely based on survival of the species only but also an important aspect of successful reproduction. Sexual selection increases the chances of individual getting mates. The sexually selected traits undergo evolution if they more than offset the diminished survival of the males that results in an increase in reproduction. Sexual selection result to a direct competition between males for females, siring more offspring due to the adaptive features they have. In summary, the chapter covers Darwin’s arguments, which are amplified when genetics discovered how important sexual recombination is to genetic variability and speciation.