Open Always
Email: support@globalcompose.com Call Now! +1-315 515-4588
Open Always
Email: support@globalcompose.com Call Now! +1-315 515-4588

Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol

This sample paper on (Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol) was uploaded by one our contributors and does not necessarily reflect how our professionals write our papers. If you would like this paper removed from our website, please contact us via our Contact Us Page.

A Database of over Million Scholarly Resources. Start your Search Now

Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol
Introduction

Nursing career has been known for shortage and work burden, which are associated with work related stress among nurses. That stress has physical, psychological, and cognitive negative outcomeson nurses and their patients.
(Farquharson et al., 2013). In this study, salivary cortisol will be measured as a biomarker of stress from novel nurses during the beginning, middle and the end of their work shift at medical surgical ward to explore if there is any relationship between stress, and poor job performance looking at the incident reports for one month.

Conceptual definition with physiological link

According to the elasticity theory in physics, stress is defined as how much pressure is applied into a given area(Kranner, Minibayeva, Beckett, & Seal, 2010). There is a linear relationship between stress and the affected object; the more force is given, the more changing in length will occur until the object is bended when it is unable to handle more pressure. (Kranner, Minibayeva, Beckett, & Seal, 2010). Similarly, there is a specific type of stress when it is in an acceptable amount called “Eustress” as claimed by Hans Selye. Eustress affects a human being and leads to productivity. However,Selye defined too much stressas “distress”, which could be beyond someone’ coping and lead to destructivity or even mental illnesses such as anxiety or depression (Kranner, Minibayeva, Beckett, & Seal, 2010).Hans Selye, the father ofGeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS) theory operationally defined stress as a nonspecific biological response to changes in normal body equilibrium. Selye generated the word “stressors” as stimulants to be distinguished from the stress as a response. However, Selye could not be satisfied to any final definition of stress as it differs from each person’s perspective.

According to anxiety and depression association of America, stress is a temporary chemical reaction that resulted from a provoking situation. However, anxiety is the long-term results from the perceived stress.There are three modes of stress from three different theoretical perspective; Stress as a stimulant, reaction, or the effect of those two which are the stress as an interaction between the environmental stimulus, and human response (Papathanasiou, 2015).

From a biological perspective,stressor alters normal psychobiological state of human body system. That alteration stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH triggers the anterior pituitary gland to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that initiates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid hormone is the cortisol in the human body. Cortisol is an essential hormone in releasing energy by metabolizing fat and protein to glucose, and elevating it in the bloodstream. (Clements, 2012). Throughout the day, the normal highest cortisol level would be upon waking up, and it gradually decreases to be at its lowest before bedtime. Cortisol is also considered an important biomarker of physiological stress (Inder, Dimeski, & Russell, 2012).

Lit review on my issue, and biomarker

            Nurses view their work shift as kind of stressor because of many reasons such as the working environment, and the difficulty maintaining social balance. (Rocha, Martino, Grassi-Kassisse, & Souza, 2013). Several studies reveled that high occupational stress among nurses lead to low patient care quality, and it probably could be a threat to patients’ safety. A qualitative study showed that among critical care nurses the time pressure especially causes the work stress that resulted in an incomplete task (Berland, Natvig, &Gundersen, 2008b). In addition, another study has shown that work stress among hemodialysis nursesarising from multiple factors such as poor communication and heavy workload lead to poor patient outcomes. (Hayes & Bonner, 2010). Morover, Excessive levels of stress might lead distraction, and inability to complete a motor task effectively as it impairs concentrations and memory (Arora et al., 2010). Reductions in stress would probably increase job satisfaction, improve retention of staff and nurse performance, and thus improve patient care. 


(Farquharson et al., 2013). Not all stressors can cause cortisol elevation, however, stressor that is linked to evaluative task is strongly associated with elevated cortisol level(Dickerson &Kemeny, 2004). Moreover, salivary cortisol level has been proven to be higher among nurses during work shift compared to their day off(Rocha, Martino, Grassi-Kassisse, & Souza, 2013).In addition, several investigators have found that more stress occurs during the initial period of clinical practice than in any other periods (Sheu, Lin, & Hwang, 2002). Stress and performance has been studied previously, however, without using a biomarker (Arora et al., 2010). Therefore, relationship between stress and performance using a scientific biomarker is needed among nurses population. Quantifying this effect is important in raising awareness of the problem so as to institute training to minimize potential errors and safeguard patient care.

Biomarker of stress: what is it, how it is done, how much does it cost, how long does it take for results, what result means?

Salivary cortisol reflects biologically either active free, or/and corticotrophin binding globulin [CBG] cortisol (Clements, 2012). However, it has a 10-fold lower concentration than total serum cortisol.(Inder, Dimeski, & Russell, 2012).Salivary cortisol will be collected by the nurses themselves with instructions pamphlet, the subjects will be instructed to collect the sample for three times in their day shift. Those three times will be around the 12 hours shift. At the beginning, middle around 12 or 1, and in the evening, is the end of the shift. The subjects will be given along with number identification three cotton rolls with high-absorption property to chew for about 3 mins, not less than 3 sec included in the Salivettesytem tube (Inder, Dimeski, & Russell, 2012). The subject will be informedto refrain from eating, smoking and brushing teeth for 1 h before sample collection.

The sample should be stored at 4 °C until received at Pathology, centrifuged at 3000 g for 10 min then stored at “80 °C until assayed. Salivary cortisol has been mostly measured by immunoassay methods (Inder, Dimeski, & Russell, 2012). The measurement shows that the levels are high during the morning and evening. Thus, it is possible that the test results show high levels in the morning and evening. The degrees in temperature used in storage are the probable temperatures of the mouth of human beings that directly influence the level of salivary cortisol.

A healthy human being should have a moderate level of salivary cortisol. But if someone is unhealthy they have high or low levels of salivary cortisol. Just like the levels suggest, high levels of salivary cortisol cause diseases such as hypertension, obesity, muscle weaknesses, high blood sugar. Thereby, it is advisable for people with high level of salivary cortisol to avoid unhealthy eating habits. Also, a person with low level of salivary cortisol suffers life threatening conditions such as weight loss, muscles pain, abdominal pain. These symptoms are very shaming if not controlled because an individual vomits and diarrhea’s. Hence people are advised to have healthy eating habits to avoid having under levels of salivary cortisol or over levels.  The results take 24 hours for accurate results but if there is room for mistakes the medical personnel in charge can redo the test for the purpose of clarity. This shows that nurses with high or low salivary cortisol have symptoms of stress in the vent of duty. Consequently, hospital who observe the needs of their staff should introduce better working condition in relation to the results of salivary cortisol showed by the nurses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

The American Institute of Stress. (2011, October 6). What is stress? Retrieved February 6, 2017, from The American Institute of Stress, http://www.stress.org/what-is-stress/

ADAA. Stress. Retrieved January 26, 2017, from https://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/stress

Arora, S., Sevdalis, N., Aggarwal, R., Sirimanna, P., Darzi, A., & Kneebone, R. (2010). Stress impairs psychomotor performance in novice laparoscopic surgeons. Surgical Endoscopy24(10), 2588–2593. doi:10.1007/s00464-010-1013-2

Berland, A., Natvig, G. K., &Gundersen, D. (2008a). Patient safety and job-related stress: A focus group study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing24(2), 90–97. doi:10.1016/j.iccn.2007.11.001

Berland, A., Natvig, G. K., &Gundersen, D. (2008b). Patient safety and job-related stress: A focus group study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing24(2), 90–97. doi:10.1016/j.iccn.2007.11.001

Clements, A. D. (2012). Salivary cortisol measurement in developmental research: Where do we go from here? Developmental Psychobiology55(3), 205–220. doi:10.1002/dev.21025

Dickerson, S. S., &Kemeny, M. E. (2004). Acute stressors and Cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin130(3), 355–391. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.355

Elbuken, G., Karaca, Z., Tanriverdi, F., Unluhizarci, K., Simsek, Y., &Kelestimur, F. (2015). Does cigarette smoking affect serum total cortisol and salivary cortisol levels? Endocrine Abstracts. doi:10.1530/endoabs.37.ep729

Farquharson, B., Bell, C., Johnston, D., Jones, M., Schofield, P., Allan, J., … Johnston, M. (2013). Nursing stress and patient care: Real-time investigation of the effect of nursing tasks and demands on psychological stress, physiological stress, and job performance: Study protocol. Journal of Advanced Nursing69(10), 2327–2335. doi:10.1111/jan.12090

Hayes, B., & Bonner, A. (2010). JOB SATISFACTION, STRESS AND BURNOUT ASSOCIATED WITH HAEMODIALYSIS NURSING: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE. Journal of Renal Care36(4), 174–179. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6686.2010.00194.x

Inder, W. J., Dimeski, G., & Russell, A. (2012). Measurement of salivary cortisol in 2012 – laboratory techniques and clinical indications. Clinical Endocrinology77(5), 645–651. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04508.x

Kranner, I., Minibayeva, F. V., Beckett, R. P., & Seal, C. E. (2010). What is stress? Concepts, definitions and applications in seed science. New Phytologist188(3), 655–673. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03461.x

Rice, V. H. (2000). Handbook of stress, coping, and health: Implications for nursing research, theory, and practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

 

PAPATHANASIOU, I., Konstantinos, T. S. A. R. A. S., Neroliatsiou, A., &Aikaterini, R. O. U. P. A. (2015). Stress: Concepts, theoretical models and nursing interventions. IN: American Journal of Nursing Science, published online4(2-1), 45-50.

Rocha, M. C. P. da, Martino, M. M. F. D., Grassi-Kassisse, D. M., & Souza, A. L. de (2013). Stress among nurses: An examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP47(5), 1187–1194. doi:10.1590/s0080-623420130000500025

Sheu, S., Lin, H.-S., & Hwang, S.-L. (2002). Perceived stress and physio-psycho-social status of nursing students during their initial period of clinical practice: The effect of coping behaviors. International Journal of Nursing Studies39(2), 165–175. doi:10.1016/s0020-7489(01)00016-5

Sharing is: CARING

Are you looking for homework writing help? Click on Order Now button below to Submit your assignment details.

Homework Writing Help
We Can Help you with this Assignment right now!
Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol

Are you looking for homework writing help on (Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol)? Well, you can either use the sample paper provided to write your paper or you could contact us today for an original paper. If you are looking for an assignment to submit, then click on ORDER NOW button or contact us today. Our Professional Writers will be glad to write your paper from scratch.

We ensure that assignment instructions are followed, the paper is written from scratch. If you are not satisfied by our service, you can either request for refund or unlimited revisions for your order at absolutely no extra pay. Once the writer has completed your paper, the editors check your paper for any grammar/formatting/plagiarism mistakes, then the final paper is sent to your email.

Privacy| Confidentiality

Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol

We do not share your personal information with any company or person. We have also ensured that the ordering process is secure; you can check the security feature in the browser. For confidentiality purposes, all papers are sent to your personal email. If you have any questions, contact us any time via email, live chat or our phone number.

Our Clients Testimonials

  • I appreciate help on the assignment. It was hard for me but am good to go now

    Impact of pollution on Environment
  • Am happy now having completed the very difficult assignment

    Creative Message Strategies
  • Your writer did a fine job on the revisions. The paper is now ok

    Ethics: Theory and Practice
  • The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. Will reach you with more assignments

    Title: Privatization in or of America
  • I expected perfection in terms of grammar and I am happy. Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. Once again, thanks a lot

    Title: Bundaberg Inquiry
  • The paper looks perfect now, thank to the writer

    Health Care Systems
  • You helped me complete several other tasks as you handled paper. wonna thank you

    Critique Paper on Political Change

Related Articles

Nursing Sample Paper on Salivary Cortisol

Analyze the Nursing Roles in providing Comprehensive care in a Variety of Community Health Settings

Community Settings This week’s graded topics relate to the following Course Outcomes (COs). CO3: Plan prevention and population-focused interventions for vulnerable populations using professional clinical judgment and evidence-based practice. (POs...
Read More

Case Study Assignment on Ethical Issues in Asia-Pacific business

Case study assignment on Ethical Issues in Asia-Pacific business For this assignment, students will write a case study report in 2,000 words based on a case identified with circumstance or...
Read More

Sample Report Paper on The proposed reward system and strategy for the big city university

A good reward system should motivate workers. It should also attract and retain the same workers. On the contrary, a bad reward system does not do either of these things....
Read More

Management of PCOS through Homoeopathy-A case report

Introduction PCOS is the acronym for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. It is the most common endocrine disorder of women in their reproductive period manifested by irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries,...
Read More

Get more from us…

Would you like this sample paper to be sent to your email or would you like to receive weekly articles on how to write your assignments? You can simply send us your request on how to write your paper and we will email you a free guide within 24-36 hours. Kindly subscribe below!

Email Address: support@globalcompose.com