. Describe and Analyze the Significance of the Chinese Exclusion Law (1882)
President Chester A. Arthur signed the act into law in the year 1882. The law aimed at restricting free migration and movement of laborers of the Chinese descent. It came as a result of amendment in the Burlingame treaty of 1886 that made provisions to the United States to suspend the Chinese immigrant. The reason as to why the act was important is that Chinese had taken most of the jobs in the United States. History of Chinese labor migration started in the year 1848, where they engaged in the construction of the transcontinental railroad. In addition, during California gold rush they took advantage of the surface gold that was in plenty to benefit themselves (Batten 75). The locals were at loggerheads with Chinese and they could not tolerate them anymore. They were forced out of these areas and ended up settling in cities such as San Francisco. In the event of searching for daily food, they dominated the casual labor market in hotels and laundry. This brought about depression of wages levels in the region to an extent the local formed an organization called the supreme order of Caucasians that advocated for the exclusion of the Chinese laborers. However, some of the local politician opposed the move terming it as detrimental to the economy of California because the immigrants paid tax that was used by the federal government to pay for its expenses. Therefore, the act strived at creating more opportunities for the locals through foreigner’s exclusion and reduction from employment. Those laborers that sought entry into the United States were required by this law to have a certificate of labor to show that he or she is qualified to work from the government.
- Describe and Analyze the Significance of the Picture Brides
Picture brides were a system that enabled the Japanese men living in the united state of America to get married to overseas women from china. Young men from the Japanese descent would mail their pictures to the Japan matchmaker. The work of a matchmaker was to match potential brides to these portraits an action that was very beneficial in establishment of families for the Japanese men. He would then make arrangement for the marriage where the brides would be sent overseas to their husbands. These pictures were in most cases deceitful in the sense that men looked very young in the picture. This was not the case in real life situation because women were astonished after meeting their potential husband who looked older because of psychological stress and hard labor (Takaki 50). Most of the women were frustrated for being deceived by the matchmaker however; they did not have a choice because their freight was one way. Therefore, they were forced into marriage due to the circumstances. On the other hand, gentlemen agreement made provisions to the Japan government to issue the passports to women in Japan. This facilitated the matchmaker’s initiative of sending women abroad. The motive of the system was anchored on the prevention of having a bachelor society affiliated to the Japanese origin while at the same time promoting the public image. Eventually the initiative led to the acceptability of Japanese into the American culture and society. It became a positive ingredient in promoting peace and unity among citizen, which was instrumental in the establishment of citizenship. Some of the Japanese leaders and athlete performed so well in the global competition an indication of the acceptability factor in the society.
Describe and Analyze Why Southern Asians (East Indians, Etc.) and Koreans Migrated to the U.S
The reason as to why south Asian migrated to the United States was to work in the agricultural farms and gold mines. Therefore, flow of Indians into the United States increased year in year out to an extent the government imposed restrictions to discourage migration. The Indian immigrants comprised of unskilled labor because most of them were not educated. The restriction saw the decline of immigrant to 12,000 immigrants, which translated to 0.5 percent of the total population of the foreign immigrants in the country. The ban was lifted in the year 1965, an action that led to upsurge and increased population of skilled laborers in the country. Furthermore, they were accorded citizenship by the legislation of laws that facilitated the process (Kitano and Daniels 23). They engaged in business and development projects that saw the country make strides into technological world. On the other hand, the first group from Korea arrived in America in the year 1850 where they settled in Californian and Hawaii. They were faced with opposition from the locals who considered them as aliens. This is because they engaged themselves in the extraction of gold and performed the odd jobs in those cities they settled in. This posed danger to the local residents because the Korean seized every job opportunity available in the market. Immorality and economic competition intensified in the area a situation that led to upheavals between the locals and immigrants. In the recent past, Korean and Asian are making tremendous progress towards the economy and the political body in the country. Some of the political and economic figures are well known for their unquantifiable success an example of such people is jerry yang co-founder of the yahoo.
Identify and Give the Significance of Vicki Manalo
Vicki made history in the Olympic diver’s competition as the first women to win gold medals in London. This was during the summer Olympics held in London in the year 1948. It opened doors for women in these competitions as she acted as a motivation to the younger generation in the United States who aspired to venture into physical competitions. Her families were living in San Francisco where she enrolled for swimming lessons at Red Cross mission district. Vicki father was a Filipino while her mother was a white woman. This was significant in the sense that the immigrants were included in the development of the country. It portrayed a good picture in the public that the immigrants were equally talented as the whites who would despise them in some instances as being primitive. She got married to Lyle Draves in the year 1946 who was her diving coach. Before the big match in London, Vicki had won several medals in various championships. Filipino among other migrants in America has faced challenges in the past but with prominent people such as Vicki, these migrants are in a position to make their way into unimaginable levels in different fields (Franks 28). The public image created by prominent people helps in alienating the perception against immigrants that is long lived in the country. Government named a park after her to honor her effort in promoting the country’s image in the international platform. She died in the year 2010 at the age of 85 years. Lyle contributed so much to her success as he trained and coached her in both fields. Both parents were immigrants because her father came from Philippines while the mother from England.
Identify and Analyze the Significance of Angel Island
The island lies in California one mile from Marina County. It served as an entry port for immigrants (pacific) coming into the country. The federal government interrogated people coming in so that it could establish their motive. In cases where an individual or groups of people motive were questionable, they were not allowed in. Asian immigrant faced strict laws that were enacted and imposed restrictions. They were discriminated against by the government agencies situated in this area. This protected and enhanced security of the country. The island implemented the anti-Asian immigrant laws that discouraged migration towards the American territory. It also acted as a homecoming and departure port in times of war especially during Spanish-American war that took place in 1863 (Mortensen and Skeens 32). Arrivals from Asian, china and Japan were taken through an intensive process as compared to their white counterparts who come looking for greener pastures. Therefore, government is in a position to account for the migration activities and regulation becomes an easy task. Between the year 1910 and 1940, the port registered a million people who passed through and comprised of 341000 alien incomers and 209,000 locals arriving back. In addition, among these people we had repatriates, deportees, deserting seamen, transit migrant and alien stowaways. This increased the number of people that set their foot into this port. Economically, it infers that government gets a lot of tax from businesses being conducted in this region. Half a million people departed or entered the island at this point during this period. Invaluably, the country registers increased population of the immigrants. Thus, this is why the country engages in restrictions initiatives that help reduce the number of immigrants coming in for various reasons.
Batten, Donna. Gale Encyclopedia of American Law. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Print.
Franks, Joel. Crossing Sidelines, Crossing Cultures: Sport and Asian Pacific American Cultural Citizenship. Lanham: UP of America, 2013. Print.
Kitano, Harry H. L, and Roger Daniels. Asian Americans: Emerging Minorities. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2012. Print.
Mortensen, Lori, and Matthew Skeens. Angel Island. Minneapolis: Picture Window Books, 2014. Print.
Takaki, Ronald T. A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 2010. Print.