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Sample Paper on Environmental Studies and Forestry

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Sample Paper on Environmental Studies and Forestry

Natural hazards refer to any naturally occurring incident that has a negative impact on the environment and people. Hazardous events include floods, tsunamis, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanoes, man-made, erosion, storm, and technological. Hazards may originate from sources such atmospheric, volcanologic, neotectonic, and oceanographic. Russia has experienced a number of different natural and technological disasters over the years. The Ministry of Emergencies has recorded an increased number of disasters since 1997 with a double increase over the years since then. For example, in 1997 technological disasters that occurred in Russia added up to 1174 with a significant decrease in 2003 (518), then increased to 863 in the year 2004.

According to the Ministry, data collected during the period 1994 to 2005, the average number of disasters was 877 per year. Figure 1, shows the number of technological disasters in relation to natural disasters. As indicated in the statistical data, the temporal changes between technological disasters and natural disasters do not match at all. Researchers from the Ministry explain that spatial and temporal spread obey definite laws or natural regulations with several factors coming into play in addition to economic, social, and technical issues. This explains the wide variation as noted in the disaster numbers from the year 1993 to 2004. With a corresponding increase in technological disaster, so does an increase occurs in natural disaster showing some sort of correlation in the happening of the two interrelated disasters.  The figure below, shows the unique relationship between technological and natural disasters.

Figure 1




In 2003, technological disaster numbered approximately 900 while natural disasters numbered 250. The following year 1994, technological disaster increased to 1100 with a corresponding increase in natural disasters to 300. In 2001, technological disasters marked at 600, with natural disasters noted at approximately 100. A corresponding similar change is noted in 2002 with natural disasters noted at 800 and a similar increase in natural disasters increasing to 300. The variation of these occurrences shows the peculiarities of these two disasters emphasizing the significant correlation between natural disasters and technological disasters.

Emergency researchers and practitioners note that any given sort of natural disaster comes along with a significant technological catastrophe such as ruptures, material spills, and or electrical exposures. The department of Public Safety explains that natural disasters such as earthquakes trigger secondary impacts such as electrical disturbance which result of electrical exposure or hazardous electrical faults. These environmental events occur as a result of a direct impact from natural occurrence, for instance, a large volcanic event may trigger or cause destruction to a power plant or a corresponding environmental event triggering a technical disturbance. Other natural events such as solar activity may result from trigger air crashes or fires.

The correlation between natural disasters and technological disasters increases with a corresponding increase in another. For instance, an increase in solar activity denotes a similar increase in motor vehicle accidents calculated as a coefficient. Similarly, a natural catastrophe on electric equipment indicates a similar coefficient increase on chemical processes, ignition, and other electrical appliances such as power units. Similar corresponding increase or decrease in between the two type disasters is realized also in other similar related events such floods triggering toxic emissions and other potential dangers to the environment such accidents and power failure.   




2nd Summary

Nepal Earthquake 2015 April 25

The Nepal Earthquake, which occurred on 25 April 2015 claimed over 8500 lives and injured approximately 20,000 people. Major earthquakes have been experienced in other regions of similar magnitude, including Assam-Tibet, which occurred in 1950, Bihar-Nepal in 1934, Kangra in 1905, and Shillong in 1897.

Figure 1











The figure above shows the aftershocks that occurred around Eastern Nepal The secondary shock measure 6.2 which occurred later after approximately 32 seconds after the main shock. From the figure, it can be seen that after the Indian plate slipped, the largest shocks occurred in the Himalaya which produced the largest magnitude. Previous movements of the Indian plate in addition to the stresses caused in later years triggered the Nepal earthquake which started from central Nepal-Bihar with a magnitude of 8. It is considered as one of the worst earthquakes in the region and as compared Kangra of 1905 or Assam-Tibet in 1950. Broadband digital data, provided source parameters for the Nepal Earth. The regional location of Nepal, a location with a history of many large and moderate earth tremors lies in an active part located in the central Himalayas. Because of several collisions of the Eurasian and Indian plates, the Himalayan plates came to be, in addition to several thrusts. The figure above shows the aftershocks, their distribution, which largely concentrated in the east, and near to the MHT, which activated Thaple, Mt. Everest, and Gauri Shanker. The study used data from Bhopal, h, Goa, Nagpur among others, to produce ground motion records in addition to S-wave phases. The regions marked approximately 1200 from the central Nepal tremor. The figure below shows the S-wave measured from Campell Bay and Bhopal stations.

Figure 2a (Campell Bay)



















Figure 3 A (Bhopal Station)



















From figure 2a, the distribution of the aftershocks moved and extended towards the east showing a strike that directed from the fault parallel to the MHT that conformed to the mechanism of plate movement. However, the stress drop of the S-wave spectrum close to the Indian Stations can be compared to the P waves and much below the intraplate section.

The pattern of movement showed and helped understand the preparatory process of the earthquake, which had similar movements within a distance of approximately 150-300 kilometers within and around Shillong. It thus justifies the plate movements within a distance of 3-kilometer span from the central earthquake to help study the seismicity patterns. Similar raptures have been discovered in the Pakistan region, including Central Nepal, Bihar-Nepal in 1934. However, with the Bihar-Nepal, no surface cracks were established apart from the regions in the Kathmandu. The uncracked surface may generate an earthquake of a magnitude of approximately eight because of the unfractured region, although it does not provide the date if the earthquake can occur earlier than the region of Dharachulla considered being more active seismically. Still, no known occurrence of another earthquake may occur as per the data and figures in Nepal region (Longitude 82.5East to 84.5East) in comparison to Dharachulla area.


3rd Summary

Seminars in Cell & Development Biology

Cancer and Cardiovascular complications are the two leading sources of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Although the reduction of cancer survivors is attributed to improvement in radiation therapy, risks of induced radiation cardiovascular ailments has increased over the years. Exposure to the radiation rays in addition to therapeutic ionizing radiation increases chances of cardiovascular complications. Recent years has seen research and development in the approach towards understanding cellular processes regulating the cardiovascular system in reaction to exposure to radioactive elements.

DNA damage and Ionizing Radiation (IR)

IR removes tightly held electrons making the atom to be ionized. Exposure to radiation induces DNA cells to break initiating a series of complex reactions that change and ionize the cells. The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia) plays a major role in DNA damage. Additionally, the IR reaction of the DNA cells induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes damage to proteins, lipids, and nuclear acids. With increased ROS production, cellular oxidative stress levels rise, which may spread to bystander neighboring cell bodies. Other damages that may occur to cells and other bodies include a change in protein and gene expression. This change is disastrous to cells and often lead to multiple health complications. Therefore, IR causes massive damage to extranuclear (For example, the mitochondria) and nuclear cells by both direct entries of energy and production of excess ROS. The excess ROS prompt increased cellular oxidative stress, even after the radiation exposure. The effect limits cellular proliferation and induces death of cells.

Cardiovascular Complications and Ionizing Radiation

Heart diseases and complications are as a result of occupational and non-occupational radiation exposures. Table 1 shows different sources occupational and environmental radiation plus their contribution to the average dose received. From table 1 and table 2, Fe ions play a significant role in the development and growth  atherosclerosis in irradiated sections of the. Irradiated mice indicated increased advancement of the ailment  in addition to aortic foot lesions, large necrotic cores, and widening of the carotid blood vessels. Exposure to radiation particles also impairs arteries and veins.


Patients on radiotherapy treatment who receive large doses of radiation often show myocardial damage in addition to the injury of the cardiac vasculature and the degree of damage often depends on the radiation dosage and irradiated volume. Research and studies show that young patients exposed to radiation are at higher risk of cardiac disease, for instance, pediatric cancer patients. The cumulative prevalence of cardiac outcomes in cancer survivors often continues to rise even after 30 years after finishing diagnosis. Often survivors of cancer have a higher chance of developing heart complications later in life as compared to their healthy counterparts. However, no known risk of cardiovascular ailment is known as a result of exposure to carbon radiation, proton, and helium.

Figure 1 in the attached article shows schematics illustrating pathophysiology of ionizing radiation-induced heart risks. The figure illustrates the interaction of several or different environmental and genetic causes. The figure helps to understand the important steps in evaluating feasible target of therapeutics. From the diagram and growing evidence, cellular DDR plays an important role in the growth of radiation-induced cardiac disease which leads to the death of cells which in turn offers one of the foundations of cancer treatment. Although the medical field is still working out ways of reducing the effect of radiation on the DNA and body cells the use of ROS scavengers for preventing and reversing IR-induced reduction offers an opportunity to counter the effects. Researchers argue that it may actually be the ideal method of preventing DNA damage in additional to cardiovascular diseases as a result of radiation.

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