The main purpose of the chapter is to distinguish between validity, reliability, scales, and levels of measurement. Validity is a quantity that measures the item of interest while reliability refers to the consistency of the capacity. The researcher seeks to affirm aspects of measurement as a tool in research as well as a research area. The main question the researcher seeks to enquire is, “what is the difference between validity and reliability? The author seeks to train future researchers on the significance of measurement in design.
The major concepts in the readings are reliability as the consistency within the study and validity being the accuracy of the study. According to the author, validity is realized in form of logics, content, criterion, and construct. Forms of quantity scales are nominal, ordinal, ratio and interval. Sources of errors of measurement include subject variation, different motivations of testing, scoring errors and inaccurate instrumentation used.
Validity, divided into logical, content, criterion and construct, refers to the quantity taken to ascertain whether the item of interest is being measured. Logical refers to face validity; the form that ensures that the measurement is conducted in the intended performance. Content validity is concerned with the interests if the researcher in the study, criterion is involved with the measurements which can be validated while construct validity is the measurement taken in unobservable elements, which can be inferred. For instance, to evaluate the playing ability of a tennis player, a researcher would request critical observers to conduct critical observation by watching the players and give the ratings. A tennis game rated by a couch would be more accurate and hence assumed as valid.
- What is the difference between measurement, design and analysis?
- When are the scales of measurements best applicable?
Among the current security issues is the domestic threat of a terror attack in the state according to CNN News 2015, February (Perez, 2015). The attack is aims the police, government buildings while planning to reject government authority. According to the intelligence, evaluation on Homeland security, threat is from the right-wing extremist citizens is planned at the time when President Obama seeks to hold a Conference at the White House to strategize on how to fight violent extremism. These threats are perceived to be equal to the foreign Islamic terror groups like the ISIS, which have garnered public attention. The government said the extreme groups who believe that they will attack the normal instances of the police, will not succeed. The right-wing terrorists have been a subject of political controversy since Bush administration. The group is gaining power now due to the poor economic period in the country promising their followers of closure from economic distress.
Regarding unbiased research questions, the study can be conducted to answer:
- Who are these extremist groups in the state?
- How can the government control extremist groups?
Chapter on Sampling Theory
To overcome poor research, a researcher should conduct a good research design. Research question in this chapter is how can a researcher conduct high-quality research? The main objective of the researcher is to educate upcoming researchers on effective research designs chosen as a pointer to high quality research.
The main concept in Collier’s sample theory is the components of a good study. A good research should include an introduction, literature review with theoretical and conceptual framework. Research questions guide a researcher on the scope of study.
According to Collier, high-quality research design results to quality research. A researcher must determine a good design to apply in a research before conducting a research. Thereafter the researcher should ensure that the study consists of an introduction with a thesis, research questions, and objectives. By applying affective research designs, accurate and valid results are determined, which leads to accurate testing of the hypothesis.
- What are the different types of research design?
- How are these designs different from each other?
Among the security, issues in the state include the threat of cyber attack according to the New York Times on march, 1st 2016 (Sanger, 2016). These attackers have been working remotely and conducted reconnaissance on the power system networks, thereby stealing credentials of the operators. American security agencies are yet to confirm the attackers but the Ukrainians blamed the Russians, citing the attack as a form of intimidation to the citizens. It is yet unclear whether the American agency will name the attackers. The intelligence officials have focused on the probability of the attack being conducted by the Russian military. They are additionally concerned with the malware technique applied to the Ukrainian grid was supposed to reach the industrial control systems. These are the controls between the switches and the computers in industries. Taking the Ukrainian attack as a warning, Americans are aware of the vulnerability of their system and are presently cautious.
Research questions in this study would therefore be:
- Who are the cyber attackers aiming among the public?
- Why do the cyber attackers focus on America and its competitors?
Perez, Evan. DHS Intelligence Report warns of Domestic Right-Wing Terror threat, CNN
Sanger, E. David. Utilities Cautioned about Potential for a Cyberattack after Ukraine’s. New