The unconstrained increase of greenhouse gas emission is leading to an uncontrolled increase in the earth’s temperature. The outcomes consist of thawing glaciers, increased rainfall, more intense climatic incidents and changing seasons. The increase speed of climate change, in combination with universal populace and increase in earnings, threatens foodstuff security worldwide. Agriculture is remarkably susceptible to climatic changes very high temperatures contribute to the reduction of production of the popular crops while influencing weed and pest propagation. Alteration in the distribution of rainfall distribution leads to an enhancement in the probability of short term crop unproductively plus the declination of the long term production. Even though there may be increases in a number of crops in several regions worldwide, the general effects of climate change on farming are anticipated to be unenthusiastic, threatening universal food security. Climate change is seen to affect crop and domestic animals productivity, hydrologic stability, input provisions including several other elements of agricultural system. The systems of agriculture are managed ecosystems; therefore, human reaction is significant to understanding and approximating the impacts of climatic changes on productivity as well as food supply. This paper therefore explores the effects that climate change has on Agriculture locally and globally (Dinar & Mendelsohn, 2011).
Influence of climate change on agriculture
According to Sadat (2013), Crop systems, and thus crop yields, are influenced by numerous environmental factors including moisture and temperature, which may act either synergistically or antagonistically with other various factors in the determination of crop yields. Monitored field experiments can lead to the generation of information about how the yield of a particular crop responds to a given stimulus like water or fertilizer. However, usually such experiments consider only a few elements of environmental factors. Another method of estimating crop yield is by the use of crop biophysical simulation models that includes factors that are derived from crop experiments. Since climate change has the possibility of cutting across a number of ecological factors, the majority of quantitative approximations of climate change impacts on crop yield are obtained from the crop simulation models (Rosenzweig &Iglesias, 1994). Probable climate change situations include very high temperatures, variations in precipitation patterns and high concentration of carbon dioxide in the ambiance. Even though temperature increase has both positive as well as negative impacts on crop yields, generally temperature increase has been discovered to affect the yield and quality of numerous crops, most significantly cereals and feed grains. A raise in precipitation may impact the semi-arid regions positively plus other water short regions by increasing soil humidity. However precipitation increase may worsen the crisis in areas with excessive water, while a decrease in precipitate may have the reverse consequence. An atmosphere composed of high carbon dioxide concentration may result in an increase in photosynthetic rates (Allen et al, 1987). Very high concentration may also result in a reduction of transportation as crops reduce their stomatal apertures, the small openings in the leaves through which Carbon dioxide and water vapor are exchanged with the atmosphere.
Generally, the changes in crop yields is normally determined by the balance between the negative and the positive effects of climatic changes on plant growth, and by the indirect effects that may affect farming. In a number of instances these indirect impacts are usually overlooked in the evaluation of the dangers of climatic changes. These indirect effects may be as a result of changes in the incidence as well as the spread of pest and pathogens, augmented rates of soil erosion and degradation as well as augmented tropospheric ozone levels as a result of increasing temperatures (Elbehri, Genest & Burfisher, 2011).
Crop response to climatic changes
The effects of climatic changes on agricultural production vary from one section to the other. According to the book Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States (2005), the relationship between environmental change and food security have, to date, generally been examined in relation to impacts on product profit and as a result, nourishment generation. Case in point, Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States (2005) combined experimental results on wheat and rice which indicated diminished product length of time of wheat as a result of warming and declines in yields of rice by about 5% °c−1 ascent over 32 °c. These effects of temperature were considered adequately impeding that they would generally counterbalance any expand in yield as a result of expanded barometrical carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation.
The book includes an article which illustrates that climatic change has a great potential of affecting crop yield and domesticated animals’ generation, hydrologic offsets, data sup- employs and diverse parts of rural frameworks. Despite that, the some of these biophysical impacts and people’s reactions to them are random and uncertain. For instance, product and animals yields are particularly affected by progressions in climatic factors, such as, temperature and precipitation and the recurrence and severances of compelling occurrences such as dry seasons, surges, and windstorms. In addition, carbon dioxide is essential for plant growth; increasing focuses have the possibility of promoting the profit of agro ecosystems (CCAUS, 2005). Climate change might similarly alter the nature, frequencies, and intensities of various harvest and domestic animals bugs; the ease of access and timing of watering system supplies; and the severances of soil disintegration.
A few researchers have further investigated the potential consequences of progressions in atmosphere on the growth and yield of harvest crops, stating that the prior predicted benefits of carbon dioxide treatment would be generally counterbalanced by additional constraints, infectivity and further communications with climatic components. In addition, reenactments of maize production in Africa and Latin America using atmosphere information from the Hadcm2 model to create trademark gradually climate information for 2055 projected a general decline by 10% (Lobell and Gourdi et al., 2003). This, and other relative projections, employs a method that is based on the product creation model, (for instance, the yield environment asset amalgamation family) to relate the atmosphere to plant physiological techniques. Yield can then be verified for a consistent harvest and up scaled to a bigger range characteristically using some kind of geographic data framework (GDF). The overall aftereffect of Lobell and Gourdi (2012), however, covers up reputable variability inside and in the middle of nations, and, as they bring up, likewise ignores the way that maize is normally used as grub and sustenance as a factor of a complex generation framework.
According to recent researches, the grain delivering districts of Canada, and northern Europe and Russia may be needed to construct a model as a result of the atmosphere progressions projected by global course displays (GCMs), while various regions of the world would suffer disasters including the western edge of the USA grasslands, eastern Brazil and western Australia (Future Council, 2014). Generally, the end results of this and resulting work that included assessments of prospect populaces and alternative future financial status (Future Council, 2014), showed that climate change would benefit the developed nations as compared to the developing nations in spite of the probability that trimming practices improved to allow more than one rain fed harvest for every year. Additionally, the anticipated demographic development and financial improvement in these developing nations would result in generous expands in sustenance supplies in this way strengthening the unfavorable impacts of climate change.
Climate change, alongside other global ecological changes, for instance, changes in water ease of access, and area cover, and changed nitrogen accessibility and cycling (all impacted by human activities), has increased uncertainties about attaining nourishment security especially for destitute (Storch and Zwiers et al., 1999). There is also the concern about addressing the universal demand for sustenance coming about as a result of increased population and changing dietary inclination will further damage natural environment both through extra pulverization of local vegetation and increased strengthening of edited territories (Storch and Zwiers et al., 1999). This may, thusly, further weaken the nourishment frameworks upon which food security is based.
Human adaptations in responding to the impacts of climate change
Societies have adapted agricultural activities to a variety of climates globally. Within every region residents have come up with strategies to deal with considerable climate variability for the purpose of increasing the reliability of food supplies and to minimize economic risks (Mendelsohn & Dinar, 2009). Ultimately, agricultural systems have adapted to the varying economic conditions, varying resource supplies, and increasing food demands through the adoption of new technologies and methodologies. The suppleness of systems advocates that there is a major human probability to adapt to climate change. Farm level adjustments can be made during the planting and harvesting dates, crop rotations, selection and crop diversity for cultivation, water used for irrigation and the utilization of fertilizers as well as tillage practices. Suitable choices can minimize the yield losses that could be caused by climate change, or enhance yields where climate change is beneficial (White, Wagester & Glasener, 2005). At the market, yield variations may bring about the generation of cost and supply changes that could be an indication of further opportunities to adapt. For instance, cultivated land of a crop may expand in regions that gain a relative benefit from climatic changes and contract in parts that lose a relative benefit. Research regarding the potential human responses to the dangers of climate change indicates that they are the significant determinants of the outcomes of climatic changes. However, forecasting the reactions that would be made and their usefulness is a challenging task. There are numerous obstacles that may put off the suitable responses including the defective information concerning future climate and its biophysical effects, insufficiency of capital, institutional barriers and other relevant factors. It is also important to note that, even though suitable responses are made, some regions may even so suffer harsh consequences that are not easy to avoid through adaptation to climate change (Rosegrant, 2008).
There are several agricultural systems that have been adopted by human in responding to the prevailing climate conditions that have been well documented. The steady pattern of growth in yields globally over the past few years approximated at 2% per year suggest that crop yields is likely to be higher in the future, with or without the effects of climate change. This development is partially attributed to the implementation of innovative technologies. A number of researches give a description on the substantial opportunities for adaptation to offset the negative impacts of climate change; however adaptation is not without costs. Modification in technology implies research and implementation expenses, in addition to the expenses of farm level adoption such as the probable physical plus capital investments. Alteration in climate may increase tension to the local and regional farming economies that are currently tackling the long-term agricultural economic variations (Kurukulasuriya & Rosenthal, 2013). Additionally, there could be barriers to adaptation that restricts responses including the availability of as well as accessibility of financial resources and technical help, and also availability of other vital inputs like water and fertilizer. There also exist other factors that influence adoption of new agricultural technologies, for instance, the rates and degree of adaptation is dependant on the danger preferences of farmers. Subsistence farmers have come up with farming practices that are mainly suited to a variety of crops that primarily serve the local and regional markets. Such crops and methodologies many not produce the expected high net returns; however they are more tolerant of climatic unpredictability. In contrast the farming practices based on technology have contributed to dramatic increase in agricultural productivity worldwide (Kurukulasuriya & Rosenthal, 2013).
Survey on awareness of climate change effects on agriculture by the residents of Madison
Between the 8th and 15th of July, a survey was conducted concerning the awareness of the effect that climate change has on agriculture. The survey was in form of questions posted on Facebook, which were responded to by the residents of Madison. Through the survey it was discovered that the society had an understanding of the dangers of climate change on crop growing. The important destinations were to audit comparative activities and to distinguish normal subjects and lessons. As a piece of the identification process, we outlined;
- The key discoveries concerning the part of human adjustments in addressing the effects of environmental changes.
- Crop response to climatic changes
- Conceivable distributional outcomes.
- The probable variations in the degree and instances of nourishment creation and expenses.
Limitations of the survey
The limitation of the survey is that the respondents did not have detailed information on how climate change affects agriculture in Madison and what the residents of Madison are doing to address the issue. A majority of Madison residents believed that the issue of climate change had the potential to be a significant problem for the agriculture in Wisconsin but could not outline the specific problems. Some general confirmation regarding global agriculture was looked into; however the numerical estimates that were introduced ought to have been translated as illustrative of the conceivable outcome of climatic change, from which more general, qualitative conclusions could have been drawn. Evaluation of progressions in agricultural production is important upon: the atmospheric changes at regional scales; suppositions regarding the adjustments by makers and customers; prospect improvements; population and salary development; and transformations in social and political conditions. In addition, the outcomes are delicate to the appraisal systems and models utilized in these estimation exercises.
Climate is the core determining aspect of agricultural production. Thus, agriculture has been a main topic in recent discussions concerning the effects of climatic changes. The paper investigates the effects that climate change has on agriculture locally and globally. As discussed above, the extent to which climate change affects agricultural production varies from one region to the other. However, the overall variation in crop yields is normally determined by the balance between the negative and the positive impacts of climate change on plant growth, and by the indirect impacts that may affect crop production. Individuals have adapted the agricultural activities to a variety of climates globally. People have adopted several agricultural systems in responding to the prevailing climate conditions that have been well documented. The steady pattern of growth in yields globally over the past few years approximated at 2% per year suggest that crop yields is likely to be higher in the future, with or without the effects of climate change. They have come up with suitable approaches of dealing with substantial climate unpredictability for the purpose of increasing the food supply and to minimize economic hazards. The steady pattern of growth in yields globally over the past few years approximated at 2% per year suggest that crop yields are likely to be higher in the future, with or without the effects of climate change. According to a survey conducted via the Facebook, it can be concluded that individuals locally and globally are alert to the potential effects of climate change on agriculture and are devising new methods of responding to the effects.
Allen, L. H., Boote, K. J., Jones, J. W., Jones, P. H., Valle, R. R., Acock, B., … & Dahlman, R. C. (1987). Response of vegetation to rising carbon dioxide: Photosynthesis, biomass, and seed yield of soybean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 1(1), 1-14.
Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States. (2005). Effects and Adaption. Washington, DC: USDA.
Dinar, A., & Mendelsohn, R. O. (2011). Handbook on climate change and agriculture. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Elbehri, A., Genest, A., & Burfisher, M. E. (2011). Global action on climate change in agriculture: Linkages to food security, markets and trade policies in developing countries. Trade and Markets Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Adams, R. M., Hurd, B. H., Lenhart, S., & Leary, N. (1998). Effects of global climate change on agriculture: an interpretative review. Climate Research, 11(1), 19-30.
Future Council: How climate change affects agriculture.
Kurukulasuriya, P., & Rosenthal, S. (2013). Climate change and agriculture: a review of impacts and adaptations. Retrieved from http://www.c ciarn.uoguelph.ca/documents/World_Bank_Paper.pdf
Lobell, D., & Gourdji, S. (2012, January 1). The Influence of Climate on Global Crop Productivity . .
Mendelsohn, R. O., & Dinar, A. (2009). Climate change and agriculture: An economic analysis of global impacts, adaptation and distributional effects. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Rosegrant et al. (2008). Climate change and agriculture. London: Earthscan.
Rosenzweig, C., & Iglesias, A. (1994). Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Data sets from major Crop maodeling study.
Sadat, M. (2013, Dec 28). The effect of climate change in a globalized world.
Storch, H. v., & Zwiers, F. W. (1999). Effects of Global Climate Change on Agriculture . Statistical analysis in climate research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
White, K., Wagester, T., & Glasener, D. K. (2005, January 1). How will Climate Change Effect Agriculture. .