Term Papers

Term Paper on IT Communication

IT Communication

The ISP serves as the internet remote server. Internet users are controlled to a specific ISP server by the VPN via the internet subscription service through the use of a program. To reach a certain VPN ISP, this connection has to pass via an internet service that is subscribed to. Instead of confidentiality for the transfer of L2 traffic, an encryption protocol for tunneling is used by the VPN. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) serves the ISP. This refers to a technique that is used in sending services that include Metro Earth, IP VPNs and optical. From one node to another within a network, the basis of the direct data for MPLS is the labels of a short path instead of network addresses. This prevents complex lookups that face routing. The IP networks that have standard routers chose where a packet should be sent once received on the basis of network-lay header (W.G., 2001).

There are several advantages of MPLS over VPN. MPLS can travel via ISP network but cannot travel via a general network for the public. This enhances confinement of data to a service provider rather than to the entire general internet. However, VPN uses the infrastructure of a general internet network. Administering MPLS is very easy because its configuration is based on the service provider’s edge router. The service provider configures the private network of MPLS. MPLS has another advantage of less overhead since less power is required for processing by the router of the ISP than when one has a VPN internet connection. Additionally, one bandwidth is shared by MPLS with the WAN connection and this reduces the internet cost. Different physical connections are also not required by the internet networks. MPLS technology allows for the passage of different data traffics via the WAN network in form of local traffic that moves to a different location (Iannone, 2011). The available bandwidth’s allocation is controlled by MPLS and this ensures that the ISPs offer superior quality services.

Scaling of the technology of MPLS Atom is great and VC information under MPLS structures’ maintenance is not required. Using MPLS, the ISP configures edge router’s device only instead of P routers. Atom sets accommodate different packets of Layer 2 type which include Ethernet, Frame Relay, HDLC, ATM and PPP across different platforms. This makes it possible for the provider of the network service in transporting different types of traffic via a backbone to accommodate different customers. Atom technology meets the set Layer 2 packets transportation standards via MPLS. This is a beneficial setup for service providers since it is easy to incorporate industry-standard methodologies into a network. Transparency is offered to customers without network services’ disruption by AToM technology. When combined with QoS, traffic engineering and MPLS, AToM technology offers different services including the virtual leased lines (VLL). The edge routers of the provider store virtual information of AToM only which connects to the edge of the customer. Thus, customers experience minimal effects from the core network of the service providers. It is also possible to scale AToM because it enhances the creation of virtual circuits without limitation.

QoS guarantees a network that offers quality results via multimedia traffic control and enhanced performance on the network. The impacts that the network causes where there is heavy load in a connection are minimized by IP QoS. A simple traffic packets management and classification mechanism is specified by Diffserv mechanism with an aim of providing quality services via modern networks.

The definition of Diffserve model is the DSCP and four PHBs’ use. The forward DS-compliant node’s behavior is defined by PHBs. Traffic conditions and the preferred PHB can affect the different metering techniques, policing, shaping and queuing. Both Diffserve and AToM mechanisms increase services’ quality within a network. Nevertheless, it is possible to mark, meter, police and shape traffic packets when they enter the Diffserv Domain in order to implement traffic policies. However, it is impossible to classify traffic pockets which pass via the AToM mechanism.

PPOE refers to the network protocol that is used for PPP frames encapsulation in the Ethernet frames. This protocol allows two points’ data communication within the network entity. This is the same as Point to Point Protocol (PPP) infrastructure. PPoE is specified by RFC as 2516. It expands PPP capability through a virtual network’s connection between points via a multipoint network of the Ethernet (Iannone, 2011).

Maintenance and establishment of the logical connection of the network is involved in VPN tunneling. This is used in encapsulating the protocol format of VPN in the carrier protocol to facilitate transmission between VPN client and the server (W.G., 2002). Generating Routing Encapsulating or GRE is a protocol that is established to encapsulate more layer protocols in a virtual network’s links between points in the internetwork of an Internet Protocol (W.G., 2001). Tunneling offers traffic packets’ transporting mechanisms between protocols. Passenger protocol is carried by transport protocol. GRE is among these tunneling mechanisms that use IP as their transport protocol. Tunnels serve like the links between points that have two end-points called the tunnel source and tunnel destination. These address each turning point. GRE tunnel configuration entails the establishment of tunnel interface through the issuance of command for interface tunnel from a global mode of configuration (Iannone, 2011).

Routing is a vital feature of a network because it allows for network interconnection. This feature is used in transferring packet from a device to another via the network. Lx and Cx models are used as routers. Two networks are connected by the Cx router. This router connects BACnet/TP (RS485) MSnetworks together using Ethernet. Lx router refers to a wireless router. This uses N-technology in connecting devices to a network (W.G., 2001). It is possible to transfer PPPoE traffic from Lx to Cx through the router devices’ configuration (Iannone, 2001).

Two methods are used in QoS implementation and these guarantees a cloud link for MPLS customers. Two points model is applied when the conditions are too stringent and a virtual pipe for data should be established to ensure critical traffic delivery. Diffserve-Aware Traffic Engineering (DS-TE) is automatically engaged and then a routing path is chosen. The chosen path satisfies the constraint of the bandwidth of the defined class of the service (W.G., 2001). The provider of the network service is relieved from computing an appropriate network for every user by the DS-TE (W.G., 2001). Point to the cloud is another model. Network providers intending to provide QoS have to provide a guarantee for Egress Committed Rate (ECR) as well as a guarantee for Ingress Committed Rate (ICR) for every offered service class.

ECR refers to a traffic rate for specific treatment of the user site in a network from the service provider. ICR is the traffic rate for the service provider’s network that offers specific treatment via the network of the SP. As long as the traffic is not more than ECR or ICR, there will be delay guarantees in the network as well as the bandwidth. For purposes of QoS, packet destinations should be tracked to keep them within the bounds of ICR/ECR. QoS application improves the entire network’s system. This improves performance since there is the incorporation of modern technology (Iannone, 2011). Broadband Remote Access (BRA) server is the specialized server that is based at the network of the ISP. This provides multiple traffic packet sources’ ground. Basically, BRAs are used in routing traffic between two points. Traffic sources include Ethernet or broadband wireless, cable and DSL. All sources are converged by BRAs into one network which then routes the packet traffic from and to the access line of digital subscribers’ multiplexers. The use of remote servers in a broadband is beneficial mainly because they provide single point of change control, they are independent of MSAN and they are mostly used in the operational model of access-agnostic (Xiao, 2008).

Diffserve provides different bandwidths. This reduces congestion in a network. The use of PWFQ algorithm is not broadly accepted since its configuration is difficult. Diffserve refers to the QoS protocol that is used in managing media connections’ bandwidth allocation over the internet. This includes the voice connection of VOIP. Users of a network get superior quality services even when the bandwidth is low. ADSL is an example of such bandwidth. EF Diffserve is the standard value of Diffserv that Cisco has set. This comprises of ToS low bit delay. This is treated by different routers and configurations through the use of the first-in, first-out policy is not required (W.G., 2001). It is possible to mark, shape, meter and police traffic packets entering the Diffserv Domain for traffic policies’ implementation. Diffserv mechanisms increase services’ quality within a network.

There is congestion when several users are contending for a similar resource within the shared network. Typically, this occurs when one link is fed by multiple links like when there is a connection of internal LANs to the WAN links. This occurs in the core networks of network routers because traffic that surpasses the designed limit can be handled by the nodes. Servers as well as network adapters with a high speed can be placed at the workstation to prevent this. This allows individual users more bandwidth which facilitates the transfer of large files (Xiao, 2008).

LLQ stands for Low Latency Queuing. Cisco developed this feature. It allows for delay as well as sensitive data’s queue via priority queuing of Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ). To give data preference over other traffic, the queued data is sent.

Traffic engineering refers to a technique for optimizing the performance and functionality of the telecommunication network. It entails dynamically regulating, analyzing and predicting the behavior of network data (Xiao, 2008). This is used in MPLS configuration in what is called Diffserv aware. It is possible to apply engineering methods in all types of networks including the Local Area Network (LAN), proprietary business, Wide Area Network (WAN), cellular telephone, Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN and the internet (Xiao, 2008).



Iannone, E. (2011). Telecommunication Networks.

W.G., E. (2001). MPLS Implementing the technology. Addison-Wesley.

Xiao, X. (2008). Technical, Commercial and Regulatory Challenges of QoS.