ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sample Essay on Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Barker T and Human K2009 Crimes of the big four motorcycle gangs.Journal of Criminal Justice 37(2): 174-179.

From this study, Barker and Human (2009) come up with four categories of motorcycle clubs that turn into deviant and conventional classes hence indicating the fact that a significant percentage of deviant clubs are in fact outlaw motorcycle gangs. Furthermore, the two cite that apart from having national operations, there are those gangs that extend their activities to the international arena while still operating nationally. Such gangs discretely take part in different criminal activities and display rivalry as well as violence towards each other. According to the authors it is evident that the activities of such gangs are perilous and life threatening. Through the Quinn and Koch’s biker criminality topology and the LexisNexis newspaper search, these authors distinctly group the different operations of gangs the operations of all the gangs. The study findings reveal that the gangs are involved in a number of criminal activities that inlcude organized business crimes such as trafficking drugs and weapons. Additionally, these groups perpetrate many other acts of violence against their fellow gangs and the public at large. The study offers a lot of insight and adds to the existing knowledge that touches on the impact of deviant groups in social functioning.

Galeotti M (ed) 2007 Global crime today: The changing face of organized crime. New York: Routledge.

The author asserts in his review that global organized crime has undergone many transformations that are aligned with the social, economic, technological, environmental, and cultural changes that are taking place within the modern society. Galleotti (2007),investigates the activities of criminal enterprises and mafia associations in Italy and other countries in Europe. According to him, technology has turned organized crime into a global issue that many countries including China, Russia, America, Poland, Hungary, and The Czech Republic among others are currently struggling with. He further asserts that organized crimes are complex in nature and may include illegal activities such as terrorism, human trafficking, illegal arms trade and drug trade among others. The main factors that instigate this form of crime can range from political changes at national, regional, and international level which tend to drive criminal activity; key economic drivers that can help to regulate markets; technological developments that facilitate easy access to transport and communication; law enforcement issues that may have an influence over criminal operations; as well as internal drivers that can have an effect on competition and also impact on relationships. This study reveals that the dynamics of organized crime can have a number of implications on the future of states as well as their sustainability. In order to address these issues in an effective manner, the author challenges the states to take on cooperative roles and strategize comprehensively with the aim of getting solutions that match the complexity of the crimes.

Wright A 2005 Organized crime. London: Willan

The author starts by making an analysis of the concept of organized crime and stipulates that that violence and coercion are key elements within this concept. According to Wright, organized crime is an international challenge with a number of impacts on the holistic well being of the society. Apart from affecting individuals, the author posits that this form of crime can undermine how corporate entities and nations perform. Besides money laundering, The author cites that corporate crimes can assume different identities or forms and employ diverse techniques. According to him, some of the root causes of these crimes are very different. There are so many case studies and he illustrates how criminal gangs and mafias grow and expand in different countries in Europe. Furthermore, he carries out an evaluation of the efforts that policy makers, governments, and law enforcement agencies are taking up in order to deal with social menace. Apart from the enforcement of monitoring and regulatory measures as well as control strategies, it is important for states to come up with rules that govern the control of drugs. The author cites that conventions can help the countries togenerate and disseminate important information with regard to handling and dealing with this social problem.

 

Reference List

Barker T and Human K 2009 Crimes of the big four motorcycle gangs. Journal of Criminal Justice37(2): 174-179.

 

Galeotti M (ed) 2007 Global crime today: The changing face of organized crime. New York: Routledge.

 

Wright A 2005Organized crime. London: Willan.

 

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