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Sample Research Paper on Identification and Use of Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontitis

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Sample Research Paper on Identification and Use of Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontitis


This research proposal outlines the methods that can be used in classifying oral micro-biome. In connection, the study explores the diverse characteristics of disease causing agents like bacteria found in biofilm, and how the bacteria relate to their hosts. According to the description given on the relationship between oral micro-biome and the host, a disease like periodontitis results from increased diversification and overdependence on the host by bacteria found in biofilm. Such bacteria can only thrive in environments like the ones provided by human mouth. This research proposal facilitates establishment of laboratory experiments to aid in growth of bacteria found in biofilms for the purposes of periodontitis analysis and treatments. In other words, this proposal is an important approach towards providing permanent solution to human dental problems. As already mentioned, no significant development has been made towards dental treatment and most dentists prefer teeth removal as the lasting solution to related dental problems.

Research Questions
  • What is the major functional biology (biomarkers) governing complex interaction within oral biofilms?
  • How can the biomarker of oral biofilms be used in diagnosis of periodontitis?
  • What methods can be used in developing drugs to be used in treatment of periodontitis?  

The findings of the research will help in developing proper diagnosis tools for periodontitis and other related infections. For several reasons, diagnosis of biofilm bacterial infections has never been successful. This is because there is no efficient equipment that can be used in diagnosis of the bacteria responsible for various infections (Shunmugaperumal 2013, p. 12). One factor to mention in this case is the lacking functional biology that forms part of the oral biofilms. Therefore, by identifying the biomarkers of the biofilm bacteria, the diagnosis process of periodontitis will be much easier as well as the treatment process. Similarly, the study is considered important in the field of science since most studies conducted have not been in a position to explain the mystery behind the relationship between micro-biome and their host, and also why culturing biofilm bacteria is difficult (Wolf & Hassell 2006, p. 71). Establishing a nutrition that will help in thriving biofilm bacteria will be considered one of the achievements in the field of science. This study is predominantly an original work whose findings are based on initial experimentation and personal observations (Walker, Surman, Jass, John & Sons 2003, p. 39). The study will be a first time attempt to explain the origin of biofilm bacteria.

Background and Literature Review

The studies by Dr Thuy do have shown that biofilm bacteria can be cultured in laboratories though their origins are not known. Therefore, there are options as far as the study of biofilm bacteria is concerned. This would mean developing a nutritional environment that will help is raising biofilm bacteria for the purposes of periodontitis control (Henderson, 2009, p. 12).

Periodontitis results from subsequent gum inflation and destruction of structure that act as supportive tissues of the teeth (Patel, Barnes & Manogue 2013, p. 41). The bacteria that trigger local gum inflammation are inhabited within human mouth. With regular teeth cleaning, the bacteria are rendered inactive and harmless to human though not beneficial in any way. However, with constant accumulation of food particles, which are not cleaned off, the biofilm bacterial species build around the gum and result in a plaque (Nielsen 2008, p. 10). The plaque is one of the conditions that encourage growth of bacteria as well as compromising body defense mechanism. Above all the studies, using human body as a laboratory to explain the exact conditions that lead to formation of plaque, tartar, bacterial build-up and subsequent periodontitis attack has really proven difficult (Nield-Gehri & Willmann 2007, p. 21). This makes it really necessary to give a different approach in examining the exact cause and reasons why most dentists recommend tooth removal, as the lasting solution to an aching tooth.

From other investigations, no particular researcher has been successful in developing a complete framework that could be used to explain the reasons why biofilm bacteria are unculturable whereas other bacteria can be cultured under normal laboratory conditions (Lindhe, Lang & Karring 2008, p. 81). The study will also identify relevant nutritional conditions for the growth of biofilm bacteria, which has never been fully performed in the past (Levine, Levine & Wiley, 2013, p. 37). Based on these distinctions, this piece of work will be entirely an original creation in the field of science.

This research fills that study gaps dentists face as far as treatment of periodontitis and other dental diseases is concerned. In relation to other investigations, the research will focus on experimentation approaches, such as the use of metagenomic, transcriptomic, and immunologic (Kinane & Mombelli 2012, p. 51). Finally, there will be an investigation on how the mentioned approaches can be applied in sequencing: a method of determining the primary characteristics that make biofilm bacteria Unculturable (Jakubovics & Palmer 2013, p. 34). 

Theoretical Framework and Methodology

This research will be based on experimentation as the main study technique. Application of relevant computer programs will be vital for result analysis and storage of data and facts. A sample of about 5 individuals will be taken from a population of 15 patients. The factors to consider in this case are the dental hygiene of every individual and related infections. This will form the major foundation of the research. The major problem in this study approach is financial constraints to be used in purchasing the required equipment. Prior identification of sources of finances can help in ensuring proper preparation and execution of the project. In this connection, involving UKSACB and PSMMC in funding process will be of greater importance.

The strategy and timescale



between 1st month and 3rd month

               4th month and 7th month

              8th month and 12th month


Assembling all the necessary equipment to be used in the research.

Establishing of experiment using the growth factors mentioned.

Analysis of the experimental results

The research will follow the above timescale and strategy until the required result is obtained. 

Statement of the Problem

The main concern for this study is to identify biomarkers for periodontitis disease, and how to use such biomarkers in diagnosing the disease for possible treatments. In other words, the research will cover important areas like the functional biology governing complex interactions within oral biofilms.  


The findings of this study will be important in revolutionizing the diagnosis and treatment process of periodontitis and other related diseases. Culturing biofilm bacteria will give medical practitioners the opportunity to explain some important preventive measures, which people can undertake in order to avoid possible infections and reinfections. Such preventive measures can only be explained once the favorable growth conditions and nutrition have been identified. The full implementation will follow once the findings of the research are used to develop an anti-biofilm bacterial drug: a drug that can be used to treat periodontitis.

Personal statement

The findings from this research will add to the various inventions previously made in medical fields. The major concern in this case is to have proper diagnosis for dental related diseases alongside providing the best form of treatment. Having acquired a Bachelor Degree in Clinical Laboratory at the medical science college from King Saud University and Master Degree in Biotechnology Advanced from Queensland University of Technology (2013 in Australia), this investigation is relevant to my field of profession and a PHD award. The Master Degree in Biotechnology Advanced at Queensland University of Technology, Australia, was awarded following my success in developing a project: The Impact of Dietary Iron on the Gut Micro-biota in Mice by Visualizing and Comparing Multiple 16S rDNA. Added to educational background are my personal achievements, experiences and skills. My educational experiences majored in the effect of dietary iron on the mice micro-biota from the small and large bowel, analysis and application of computational methods in the 16S rRNA gene, computational methods for the processing of 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as assigning taxonomic lineages, clustering and statistical comparisons. Added to these achievements is my work experience as a Senior Medical Laboratory Scientific Officer Microbiologist at Prince Sultan Military Medical City. As an officer, I developed experience in reading cultures for the presence and absence of microbial growth, isolating and identifying pathogens using specialized media, enrichment broths and Microscan system, entering data and results into the network database, performing QC of the lab, lab equipment and cultures and also performed College of America Pathologist (CAP) test samples. With the mentioned activities, the 9 years’ experience in the field of microbiology is a long term factor to mention since the impact led to development of good communication skills, enhanced ability to deal with and solve problems in a mature way, enhanced team building, coaching and leadership skills, increased willingness to execute challenging projects as well as accurate application of computer systems to enhance data analysis and information storage. With all the mention achievements, experiences and skills, I stand a better chance of obtaining the PhD awards after the completion of this final project: Identification and Use of Biomarkers in Diagnosis and Treatment of Periodontitis.

Summaries and conclusion

From the specifications of this investigation, it will be necessary for the research to be conducted in order to control some of the common infections, which can be easily prevented. As a first attempt study to identify the phylogenetic diversity of the micro-biota and its associated infectious diseases, there is a need to prioritize in purchase of proper equipment and chemicals to be used in various experiments. A controlled experiment using metagenomic, transcriptomic, and immunological approaches is highly important in identifying the various necessary environmental factors that can help in improving the health of the host of micro-biome.















Henderson, B. (2009). Periodontal medicine and systems biology. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

Jakubovics, N. S., & Palmer, R. J. (2013). Oral microbial ecology: Current research and new perspectives. Norfolk: Caister Academic Press.

Kinane, D. F., & Mombelli, A. (2012). Periodontal disease. Basel: Karger.

Levine, T. B., Levine, A. B., & Wiley InterScience. (2013). Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Lindhe, J., Lang, N. P., & Karring, T. (2008). Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry. Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard.

Nield-Gehrig, J. S., & Willmann, D. E. (2007). Foundations of periodontics for the dental hygienist. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Nielsen, F. L. (2008). Progress in oral cancer research. New York: Nova Biomedical Books.

Patel, S., Barnes, J. J., & Manogue, M. (2013). The principles of endodontics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shunmugaperumal, T. (2013). Biofilm eradication and prevention: A pharmaceutical approach to medical device infections. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Walker, J., Surman, S., Jass, J., John Wiley & Sons., & Wiley InterScience. (2003). Medical biofilms: Detection, prevention and control. Chichester, West Susssex: J. Wiley.

Wolf, H. F., & Hassell, T. M. (2006). Periodontology. Stuttgart: Thieme.

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